Midsummer Night's Dream: Entire Play
Free Essay: Hermia and Helena's relationship has changed greatly after the They had complete trust in each other, telling each other their deepest secrets. A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM As Duke Theseus and Hippolyta prepare for. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Shakespeare homepage Enter EGEUS, HERMIA , LYSANDER, and DEMETRIUS. EGEUS . As due to love as thoughts and dreams and sighs, Wishes and tears .. To trust the opportunity of night. And the ill. Egeus comes before Theseus with his daughter Hermia, who is in love with Lysander, although her A Midsummer Night's Dream was written early in Shakespeare's career, probably between and It .. Love all, trust a few.
Oberon seeks to punish Titania's disobedience. He calls upon Robin " Puck " Goodfellow, his "shrewd and knavish sprite", to help him concoct a magical juice derived from a flower called " love-in-idleness ", which turns from white to purple when struck by Cupid's arrow.
When the concoction is applied to the eyelids of a sleeping person, that person, upon waking, falls in love with the first living thing they perceive. He instructs Puck to retrieve the flower with the hope that he might make Titania fall in love with an animal of the forest and thereby shame her into giving up the little Indian boy. Helena, desperate to reclaim Demetrius's love, tells Demetrius about the plan and he follows them in hopes of finding Hermia.
Helena continually makes advances towards Demetrius, promising to love him more than Hermia. However, he rebuffs her with cruel insults against her. Observing this, Oberon orders Puck to spread some of the magical juice from the flower on the eyelids of the young Athenian man.
Instead, Puck mistakes Lysander for Demetrius, not having actually seen either before, and administers the juice to the sleeping Lysander. Helena, coming across him, wakes him while attempting to determine whether he is dead or asleep. Upon this happening, Lysander immediately falls in love with Helena. Helena, thinking Lysander is playing a trick on her, runs away with Lysander following her. When Hermia wakes up, she sees that Lysander is gone and goes out in the woods to find him.
Oberon sees Demetrius still following Hermia, who thinks Demetrius killed Lysander, and is enraged. Upon waking up, he sees Helena. Now, both men are in love with Helena. However, she is convinced that her two suitors are mocking her, as neither loved her originally. Hermia finds Lysander and asks why he left her, but Lysander claims and denies he never loved Hermia, but Helena. Hermia accuses Helena of stealing Lysander away from her while Helena believes Hermia joined the two men in mocking her.
Hermia tries to attack Helena, but the two men protect Helena. Lysander, tired of Hermia's presence, insults her and tells her to leave. Lysander and Demetrius decide to seek a place to duel to prove whose love for Helena is the greater. The two girls go their own separate ways, Helena hoping to reach Athens and Hermia chasing after the men to make sure Lysander doesn't get hurt or killed.
Oberon orders Puck to keep Lysander and Demetrius from catching up with one another and to remove the charm from Lysander so Lysander can return to love Hermia, while Demetrius continues to love Helena.
Bottom is spotted by Puck, who taking his name to be another word for a jackass transforms his head into that of a donkey. When Bottom returns for his next lines, the other workmen run screaming in terror: They claim that they are haunted, much to Bottom's confusion.
Determined to await his friends, he begins to sing to himself. Titania, having received the love-potion, is awakened by Bottom's singing and immediately falls in love with him. She lavishes him with the attention of her and her fairies, and while she is in this state of devotion, Oberon takes the changeling. Having achieved his goals, Oberon releases Titania, orders Puck to remove the donkey's head from Bottom, and arranges everything so Helena, Hermia, Demetrius and Lysander will all believe they have been dreaming when they awaken.
Puck distracts Lysander and Demetrius from fighting over Helena's love by mimicking their voices and leading them apart. Eventually, all four find themselves separately falling asleep in the glade. Once they fall asleep, Puck administers the love potion to Lysander again, returning his love to Hermia again, and claiming all will be well in the morning.
The fairies then disappear, and Theseus and Hippolyta arrive on the scene, during an early morning hunt. They find the lovers still sleeping in the glade. They wake up the lovers and, since Demetrius no longer loves Hermia, Theseus over-rules Egeus's demands and arranges a group wedding. The lovers at first believe they are still in a dream and can't recall what has happened.
A Midsummer Night's Dream - Wikipedia
The lovers decide that the night's events must have been a dream. After they exit, Bottom awakes, and he too decides that he must have experienced a dream "past the wit of man". The performers are so terrible playing their roles that the guests laugh as if it were meant to be a comedy, and everyone retires to bed.
Afterwards, Oberon, Titania, Puck, and other fairies enter, and bless the house and its occupants with good fortune. After all the other characters leave, Puck "restores amends" and suggests that what the audience experienced might just be a dream. Engraving from a painting by Henry Fuselipublished It is unknown exactly when A Midsummer Night's Dream was written or first performed, but on the basis of topical references and an allusion to Edmund Spenser 's Epithalamionit is usually dated or early Some have theorised that the play might have been written for an aristocratic wedding for example that of Elizabeth Carey, Lady Berkeleywhile others suggest that it was written for the Queen to celebrate the feast day of St.
Johnbut no evidence exists to support this theory. In any case, it would have been performed at The Theatre and, later, The Globe. Though it is not a translation or adaptation of an earlier work, various sources such as Ovid 's Metamorphoses and Chaucer 's " The Knight's Tale " served as inspiration. The play belongs to the early-middle period of the author, when Shakespeare devoted his attention to the lyricism of his works.
The title page of Q1 states that the play was "sundry times publickely acted" prior to It was the first festive day and night when Adonis was allowed to depart the underworld to spend six months with his paramour, Aphrodite. It was considered a time to celebrate the first bliss of new and reunited lovers. The wedding of Theseus and Hippolyta and the mistaken and waylaid lovers, Titania and Bottom, even the erstwhile acting troupe, model various aspects and forms of love.
It was written for a wedding, and part of the festive structure of the wedding night. The audience who saw the play in the public theatre in the months that followed became vicarious participants in an aristocratic festival from which they were physically excluded.
My purpose will be to demonstrate how closely the play is integrated with a historically specific upper-class celebration. He writes that the fairies make light of love by mistaking the lovers and by applying a love potion to Titania's eyes, forcing her to fall in love with an ass. Hermia and Lysander are both met by Puck, who provides some comic relief in the play by confounding the four lovers in the forest. However, the play also alludes to serious themes.
At the end of the play, Hippolyta and Theseus, happily married, watch the play about the unfortunate lovers, Pyramus and Thisbe, and are able to enjoy and laugh at it. Problem with time[ edit ] There is a dispute over the scenario of the play as it is cited at first by Theseus that "four happy days bring in another moon".
It is possible that the Moon set during the night allowing Lysander to escape in the moonlight and for the actors to rehearse, then for the wood episode to occur without moonlight. Theseus's statement can also be interpreted to mean "four days until the next month". Another possibility is that, since each month there are roughly four consecutive nights that the moon is not seen due to its closeness to the sun in the sky the two nights before the moment of new moon, followed by the two following itit may in this fashion indicate a liminal "dark of the moon" period full of magical possibilities.
This is further supported by Hippolyta's opening lines exclaiming "And then the moon, like to a silver bow New-bent in heaven, shall behold the night of our solemnities. The play also intertwines the Midsummer Eve of the title with May Dayfurthering the idea of a confusion of time and the seasons. This is evidenced by Theseus commenting on some slumbering youths, that they "observe The rite of May".
Titania and Bottom Maurice Hunt, Chair of the English Department at Baylor Universitywrites of the blurring of the identities of fantasy and reality in the play that make possible "that pleasing, narcotic dreaminess associated with the fairies of the play".
This also seems to be the axis around which the plot conflicts in the play occur. Hunt suggests that it is the breaking down of individual identities that leads to the central conflict in the story.
It is driven by a desire for new and more practical ties between characters as a means of coping with the strange world within the forest, even in relationships as diverse and seemingly unrealistic as the brief love between Titania and Bottom: In describing the occupations of the acting troupe, he writes "Two construct or put together, two mend and repair, one weaves and one sews. All join together what is apart or mend what has been rent, broken, or sundered. Further, the mechanicals understand this theme as they take on their individual parts for a corporate performance of Pyramus and Thisbe.
Marshall remarks that "To be an actor is to double and divide oneself, to discover oneself in two parts: It seems that a desire to lose one's individuality and find identity in the love of another is what quietly moves the events of A Midsummer Night's Dream. As the primary sense of motivation, this desire is reflected even in the scenery depictions and the story's overall mood. Green explores possible interpretations of alternative sexuality that he finds within the text of the play, in juxtaposition to the proscribed social mores of the culture at the time the play was written.
He writes that his essay "does not seek to rewrite A Midsummer Night's Dream as a gay play but rather explores some of its 'homoerotic significations' Slights albeit all the characters are played by males. Upon their arrival in Athens, the couples are married.
Marriage is seen as the ultimate social achievement for women while men can go on to do many other great things and gain social recognition. In reference to the triple wedding, he says, "The festive conclusion in A Midsummer Night's Dream depends upon the success of a process by which the feminine pride and power manifested in Amazon warriors, possessive mothers, unruly wives, and wilful daughters are brought under the control of lords and husbands.
A connection between flowers and sexuality is drawn.
The juice employed by Oberon can be seen as symbolising menstrual blood as well as the "sexual blood shed by "virgins"". While blood as a result of menstruation is representative of a woman's power, blood as a result of a first sexual encounter represents man's power over women. Tennenhouse contrasts the patriarchal rule of Theseus in Athens with that of Oberon in the carnivalistic Faerie world.
The disorder in the land of the fairies completely opposes the world of Athens. He states that during times of carnival and festival, male power is broken down. For example, what happens to the four lovers in the woods as well as Bottom's dream represents chaos that contrasts with Theseus' political order.
However, Theseus does not punish the lovers for their disobedience.
Truth and Lies in Act I, Scene i of A Midsummer Night’s Dream
According to Tennenhouse, by forgiving the lovers, he has made a distinction between the law of the patriarch Egeus and that of the monarch Theseuscreating two different voices of authority. This distinction can be compared to the time of Elizabeth Iin which monarchs were seen as having two bodies: Elizabeth's succession itself represented both the voice of a patriarch as well as the voice of a monarch: The earliest such piece of criticism was a entry in the diary of Samuel Pepys.
He found the play to be "the most insipid ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life".
He was preoccupied with the question of whether fairies should be depicted in theatrical plays, since they did not exist. He concluded that poets should be allowed to depict things which do not exist but derive from popular belief. And fairies are of this sort, as are pigmies and the extraordinary effects of magick. Based on this reasoning, Dryden defended the merits of three fantasy plays: Gildon thought that Shakespeare drew inspiration from the works of Ovid and Virgiland that he could read them in the original Latin and not in later translations.
He felt the depiction of the supernatural was among Shakespeare's strengths, not weaknesses. He especially praised the poetry and wit of the fairies, and the quality of the verse involved. He felt that the poetry, the characterisation, and the originality of the play were its strengths, but that its major weaknesses were a "puerile" plot and that it consists of an odd mixture of incidents.
The connection of the incidents to each other seemed rather forced to Gentleman. He found that the "more exalted characters" the aristocrats of Athens are subservient to the interests of those beneath them. In other words, the lower-class characters play larger roles than their betters and overshadow them. He found this to be a grave error of the writer. Malone thought that this play had to be an early and immature work of Shakespeare and, by implication, that an older writer would know better.
Malone's main argument seems to derive from the classism of his era. He assumes that the aristocrats had to receive more attention in the narrative and to be more important, more distinguished, and better than the lower class. According to Kehler, significant 19th-century criticism began in with August Wilhelm Schlegel. Schlegel perceived unity in the multiple plot lines. He noted that the donkey's head is not a random transformation, but reflects Bottom's true nature.
He identified the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe as a burlesque of the Athenian lovers. He found the work to be "a delightful fiction"  but when staged, it is reduced to a dull pantomime. He concluded that poetry and the stage do not fit together. She notes that prior to the s, all stage productions of this play were adaptations unfaithful to the original text. The first was that the entire play should be seen as a dream.
Second, that Helena is guilty of "ungrateful treachery" to Hermia. He thought that this was a reflection of the lack of principles in women, who are more likely to follow their own passions and inclinations than men. Women, in his view, feel less abhorrence for moral evilthough they are concerned with its outward consequences.
Coleridge was probably the earliest critic to introduce gender issues to the analysis of this play. Kehler dismisses his views on Helena as indications of Coleridge's own misogynyrather than genuine reflections of Helena's morality. He turned his attention to Theseus' speech about "the lunatic, the lover, and the poet" [a] and to Hippolyta's response to it.
He regarded Theseus as the voice of Shakespeare himself and the speech as a call for imaginative audiences. He also viewed Bottom as a lucky man on whom Fortune showered favours beyond measure. He was particularly amused by the way Bottom reacts to the love of the fairy queen: Maginn argued that "Theseus would have bent in reverent awe before Titania.
Bottom treats her as carelessly as if she were the wench of the next-door tapster.A Midsummer Night's Dream Lysander is Bewitched
He viewed Oberon as angry with the "caprices"  of his queen, but unable to anticipate that her charmed affections would be reserved for a weaver with a donkey's head. In his view, Shakespeare implied that human life is nothing but a dream, suggesting influence from Plato and his followers who thought human reality is deprived of all genuine existence. Ulrici noted the way Theseus and Hippolyta behave here, like ordinary people.
He agreed with Malone that this did not fit their stations in life, but viewed this behaviour as an indication of parody about class differences. He thought that this play indicated Shakespeare's maturity as a playwright, and that its "Thesean harmony"  reflects proper decorum of character. He also viewed Bottom as the best-drawn character, with his self-confidence, authority, and self-love.
The four run through the forest pursuing each other while Puck helps his master play a trick on the fairy queen. In the end, Puck reverses the magic, and the two couples reconcile and marry. Egeus asks for the Duke to intervene in a dispute. His daughter, Hermia, will not agree to marry Demetrius whom Egeus has chosen for her because she loves a gentleman named Lysander.
The Duke asks Hermia to be obedient to her father. He offers her one of two options: Royal Shakespeare Company, Naturally upset with the offer, Lysander and Hermia plan to elope and share their secret with Helena, Hermia's friend. Helena is desperately in love with Demetrius, who seems to have abandoned her in favour of Hermia. At night, Lysander and Hermia escape from Athens; but they soon lose their way in the woods. After Helena tells him of their intention to defy the law, Demetrius decides to follow the lovers into the woods.
In turn, Helena follows Demetrius in the hope that he will give up on Hermia and choose her instead. Meanwhile, a group of working men are preparing a play of the tragic love-story of Pyramus and Thisbe to present before the Duke Theseus on his wedding day.
Nick Bottom, the weaver, is to play the lover Pyramus, while Flute, the bellows-mender, begrudgingly agrees to play Thisbe.
Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind; and therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. She acquired a magical child from one of her waiting women, and now refuses to hand him over to Oberon to use as a page.
Oberon begins to plot a way to get revenge on Titania for her disobedience. He sends his fairy servant, Puck, to fetch a purple flower with juice that makes people fall in love with the next creature they see. Afterwards, Oberon overhears Helena and Demetrius arguing in the forest. Oberon hears Demetrius mistreat Helena and tells Puck to anoint 'the Athenian', so Demetrius will fall in love with the first person that he sees.
Puck mistakes the Athenian and puts the flower juice on the eyes of the sleeping Lysander.