CV Physiology | Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Renin is an enzyme that controls aldosterone production. Aldosterone and renin tests help diagnose primary (Conn syndrome) and secondary. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. The authors suggest that there was a significant inverse relationship Renin- angiotensin-aldosterone blockade reduces atrial fibrillation in.
When afferent arteriole pressure is reduced, glomerular filtration decreases, and this reduces NaCl in the distal tubule.Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) and Blood Pressure
This serves as an important mechanism contributing to the release of renin when there is afferent arteriole hypotension, which can be caused by systemic hypotension or narrowing stenosis of the renal artery that supplies blood flow to the kidney.
When renin is released into the blood, it acts upon a circulating substrate, angiotensinogen, that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to form the decapeptide angiotensin I. Vascular endothelium, particularly in the lungs, has an enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme ACEthat cleaves off two amino acids to form the octapeptide, angiotensin II AIIalthough many other tissues in the body heart, brain, vascular also can form AII. AII has several very important functions: These natriuretic peptides acts as an important counter-regulatory system.
The assay is sensitive with intra-assay coefficients of variation ranging from 1. The assay is sensitive with intra-assay coefficients of variation ranging from 2. For database management and statistical analysis, SAS software, version 9.
As circulating renin and aldosterone concentrations and ARR were not normally distributed, in data analysis they were expressed as log renin and square-root aldosterone or ARR values. Multivariate regression models including the same confounders were used to determine the significance of interactive terms independent of the individual terms. As there were sibling pairs, and parent—child pairs, the probability values derived from multivariate models were adjusted for nonindependence of family members using a mixed model of analysis as defined by SAS software.
As antihypertensive therapy may modify plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations or urinary salt excretion, sensitivity analysis was conducted where the aforementioned relationships were assessed in participants not receiving therapy. This approach eliminates the possibility that antihypertensive therapy confounds relationships with BP. However, as the primary question was whether circulating ARR influences the relationship between salt intake and BP at a community level, the analysis was not confined to just participants not receiving therapy, as this subgroup would not necessarily represent a cross-section of the community.
Results Characteristics of the participants Table 1 gives the characteristics of the study group. Data analysis and Manuscript drafting: Critical revision of manuscript: All the authors approved the final version of the manuscript and consented for its publication.
Global status report on non communicable diseases Attaining the nine global noncommunicable diseases targets: World Health Organization Burden of undiagnosed hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Renin - Wikipedia
Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: The treatment of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes. Diab Care ; Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Effects of calcium-channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension.
Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med ; Judd E, Calhoun DA. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: Definition, prevalence and outcomes. J Hum Hypertens ; Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of resistant hypertension in treated hypertensive populations. Am J Hypertens ; The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: BMJ Open ; 6: A risk score to identify those at high-risk.
J Hypertens ; Characterization of resistant hypertension: Association between resistant hypertension, aldosterone, and persistent intravascular volume expansion.