Brazil–Uruguay relations - Wikipedia
Uruguay is very interesting country, being the smaller brother between to giants of the region. Uruguay used Motley Fool issues rare "double down" buy alert. A report from Uruguay XXI´s Department of Competitive Intelligence analyzes the current economic and commercial environment in Brazil and its trade relations. Uruguay became independent of Spain in and was annexed by Brazil until the United States established diplomatic relations with Uruguay and the two.
Uruguay rates highly for most development indicators and is known for its secularism, liberal social laws, and well-developed social security, health, and educational systems.
It is one of the few countries in Latin America where the entire population has access to clean water. Uruguay's provision of free primary through university education has contributed to the country's high levels of literacy and educational attainment.
Uruguay - Countries - Office of the Historian
Political overview The Spanish first arrived in Uruguay inbut resistance from indigenous inhabitants helped postpone full Spanish settlement until the early 18th century. Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbour to become an important commercial centre. Following secession from Spain inUruguay was annexed by Portugal to its Brazilian territories.
Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil inUruguay declared its independence from Brazil inand in the country became fully independent under the Treaty of Montevideo. During the rest of the 19th century there was a number of minor conflicts with neighbouring states, coupled with considerable inflows of mainly European immigrants. Throughout much of the 20th century, Uruguay's two main political parties, the centrist Colorado and National Blanco parties, alternated in power.
However, a military regime assumed control following a coup inand remained in power until The legacies of twelve years of military rule included an economy in severe decline and lingering human rights issues. Democracy was re-installed in and successive governments have worked to consolidate Uruguay's democratic institutions and stabilise the economy. Inthe left-of-centre Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties.
System of government Uruguay is divided into 19 "departments" with limited local self-government.
The political system is based on a strong central executive branch, subject to legislative and judicial checks. No member of any branch of government can simultaneously perform official duties in another branch.
The President and Vice-President are chosen by direct popular vote for one five-year term consecutive re-election is not permittedand the ministers are appointed by the President. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral Parliament, comprising the member Senate upper house and the member Chamber of Deputies lower house. The next presidential and parliamentary elections will be held in October Recent political developments The ruling "Frente Amplio" coalition was returned by a comfortable margin in late after successfully campaigning on Uruguay's strong growth in the previous decade of Frente Amplio governments.
The Frente Amplio FA is a centre-left coalition of 21 political groups. Since Marchhowever, government initiatives have been hampered by an increasingly divided Frente Amplio coalition, that has thwarted attempts to reduce public debt and rein in the fiscal deficit. Uruguay has performed well during its tenure on the UN Security Council This was the first time that the conference took place in Latin America.
Foreign and trade policy Uruguay's most important political and economic partners are its neighbours, in particular Brazil and Argentina. Mexico is an observer and Bolivia is in the process of becoming a full member. Membership of Mercosur provides Uruguay with preferential trade access to the markets of Mercosur members and its associates.
However, Uruguay has expressed an increasing dissatisfaction with the trading benefits that Mercosur has provided and increased protectionism from some other members, and has mooted external FTAs an idea opposed by its Mercosur partners as inconsistent with Mercosur rules.
Inboth Uruguay and Australia became observers of the Pacific Alliance, a group of outward-looking pro-trade liberalising Latin American economies comprising Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
InUruguay announced its intention to pursue full membership of the bloc, subject to its Mercosur commitments. Uruguay maintains positive relations with the United States, based on economic ties and regional cooperation aimed at combatting drug trafficking and terrorism.
Uruguay country brief - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Uruguay and the United States have, in the past, put in place agreements to establish trade and investment relations, including the Joint Commission on Trade and Investment and a bilateral investment framework agreement, which entered into force in Opportunities had been lost with the shelving of education reforms and withdrawal from Trade in Services Agreement negotiations, however a renewed Free Trade Agreement with Chile October is likely to attract Uruguay to Chile's services sector, while Uruguay takes advantage of Chile's openness to trade across the Pacific.
Bilateral relations Australia is expanding its bilateral relationship with Uruguay through trade and people-to-people links, including student exchanges and academic linkages, particularly in the agriculture, energy, mining, and education sectors.
There is a Census Uruguayan born community in Australia.
In there were 2, short-term visitor arrivals from Uruguay. Uruguayan student numbers in Australia remain small, with 89 students enrolled in Australian institutions as at October InDeakin University opened its Latin American office in Uruguay's capital Montevideo, including supporting student exchange in the region more broadly. The Sustainable Minerals Institute of Queensland University has provided advice to the Uruguayan Mining and Environment ministries with regard to environmental best practices and mine safety.
Inone Australian student received an Endeavour mobility grant to study in Uruguay. On 8 Julyan Arbitral Tribunal ruled in Uruguay's favour on a challenge brought by tobacco company Philip Morris.
Australia welcomed the decision of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Arbitral Tribunal upholding Uruguay's tobacco regulatory measures and congratulated Uruguay on the outcome of this arbitration.
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InAustralia and Uruguay signed a Work and Holiday Visa arrangement effectivewith a reciprocal quota of visas annually. It kept changing hands from crown to crown due to treaties such as the Treaty of Madrid in and the Treaty of San Ildefonso inuntil it remained with the Spanish. He then liberated Montevideo from the centralizing control of Buenos Aires, and in declared the Liga Federal.
This led to the day Cisplatine War. Neither side gained the upper hand, and in the Treaty of Montevideofostered by the British Empiregave birth to Uruguay as an independent state. Uruguayan civil war[ edit ] Further information: Uruguayan Civil War The political scene in Uruguay following its independence from Brazil became split between two parties, the conservative Blancos and the liberal Colorados.
The Colorados were led by Fructuoso Rivera and represented the business interests of Montevideo ; the Blancos were headed by Manuel Oribewho looked after the agricultural interests of the countryside and promoted protectionism.
Inthe Kingdom of France started a naval blockade over the port of Buenos Airesin support of the Peru—Bolivian Confederationwho had declared the War of the Confederation over the Argentine Confederation. Unable to deploy land troops, France sought allied forces to fight Juan Manuel de Rosas - the governor of the Argentine Confederation, on their behalf.
For this purpose they helped Fructuoso Rivera to topple the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribewho was staying in good terms with Rosas. Rosas did not recognize Rivera as a legitimate president, and sought to restore Oribe in power.
Rivera and Juan Lavalle prepared troops to attack Buenos Aires. Manuel Oribe was eventually defeated inleaving the Colorados in full control of the country. Brazil followed up by intervening in Uruguay in Maysupporting the Colorados with financial and naval forces. In FebruaryRosas resigned, and the pro-Colorado forces lifted the siege of Montevideo.