Chromosome - Wikipedia
There is a relationship between DNA, a chromosome, and chromatin.. see below :). Both DNA and chromosomes lie behind our basic understanding of the human body. However, there are subtle differences between the two. Learning Objectives. By the end of Within the nucleus are threads of chromatin composed of DNA and associated proteins (Figure 4). Along the The chromosome is composed of DNA and proteins; it is the condensed form of chromatin.
Some chromosome abnormalities do not cause disease in carriers, such as translocationsor chromosomal inversionsalthough they may lead to a higher chance of bearing a child with a chromosome disorder. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes or chromosome sets, called aneuploidymay be lethal or may give rise to genetic disorders.
The gain or loss of DNA from chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders. Cri du chatwhich is caused by the deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5.
Affected individuals have wide-set eyes, a small head and jaw, moderate to severe mental health problems, and are very short. Down syndromethe most common trisomy, usually caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 trisomy Characteristics include decreased muscle tone, stockier build, asymmetrical skull, slanting eyes and mild to moderate developmental disability.
What is the relationship of DNA, a chromosome, and chromatin? | Socratic
Ninety percent of those affected die in infancy. They have characteristic clenched hands and overlapping fingers. Isodicentric 15also called idic 15partial tetrasomy 15q, or inverted duplication 15 inv dup Jacobsen syndromewhich is very rare. It is also called the terminal 11q deletion disorder. Most have a bleeding disorder called Paris-Trousseau syndrome.
What is the relationship of DNA, a chromosome, and chromatin?
Men with Klinefelter syndrome are usually sterile and tend to be taller and have longer arms and legs than their peers. Boys with the syndrome are often shy and quiet and have a higher incidence of speech delay and dyslexia. Without testosterone treatment, some may develop gynecomastia during puberty. Patau Syndromealso called D-Syndrome or trisomy Symptoms are somewhat similar to those of trisomy, without the characteristic folded hand.
Small supernumerary marker chromosome. This means there is an extra, abnormal chromosome. Features depend on the origin of the extra genetic material.Chromosomes, Chromatids, Chromatin, etc.
Cat-eye syndrome and isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome or Idic15 are both caused by a supernumerary marker chromosome, as is Pallister—Killian syndrome. XXX girls tend to be tall and thin and have a higher incidence of dyslexia.
In Turner syndrome, female sexual characteristics are present but underdeveloped. Females with Turner syndrome often have a short stature, low hairline, abnormal eye features and bone development and a "caved-in" appearance to the chest. Wolf—Hirschhorn syndromewhich is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. It is characterized by growth retardation, delayed motor skills development, "Greek Helmet" facial features, and mild to profound mental health problems.
XYY boys are usually taller than their siblings. Proteins attach themselves to these stretches and coil them so that they form chromosomes. These stretches are very important in the formation of an organism.
Do you know why? This is because these are the stretches that determine which genes are going to be turned on and which are to be turned off. When a gene is turned on, it determines how the proteins are going to be formed in a cell.
This in turn determines many aspects of a human being- starting from the color of his eye to the inheritance of a number of diseases and conditions. A chromosome is simply the product of the DNA and the proteins that are attached to it.
There are 23 pairs of the chromosomes in every human being. One set is inherited from the father, and one set is inherited from the mother.
A DNA is a sort of a bio molecule. The entire DNA in cells can be found in individual pieces that are called chromosomes. The main difference between DNA and chromosome is regarding the role of genes.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. The DNA is basically made up of cytosine, adenine, thymine and guanine. When you arrange these four bases to create a particular segment, it is called a gene.
When these segments are coiled in a form that can be easily duplicated, they are known as chromosomes. Try to remember it like this- a gene is composed of tiny chromosomes, each of which determines a particular characteristic in a human.