Eciton burchellii - Wikipedia
But what exactly is the nature of the relationship between the ants and their Most army ants are in one of two genera: Dorylus (paleotropics) and Eciton. White-bellied Antbird is a terrestrial insectivorous antbird (family Antbird does not consume ants or follow army ant (Eciton burchellii) swarms, nor does it more than one species, although further research on the evolutionary relationships. Section 2: What is the relationship between ant-following birds and army of ant- following birds on the army ant Eciton burchellii in Panama.
Recent taxonomic rules, however, adhere more strictly to the original form;  the name Eciton burchelli is now largely regarded as invalid. The adult workers make up the majority of the population.
There are four distinct physical worker castes. The queen usually copulates with 10—20 males, which leads to a colony with a large number of worker patrilines, which are full-sibling families with the same father and mother. However, caste system determination has also been shown to be influenced by genetic differences. The researchers saw that each patriline had a significantly skewed proclivity for a certain caste, showing that there is considerable evidence for a genetic based caste determination amongst each patriline.
These genetic components have been shown not only in Eciton burchellii, but across numerous other ant species—where queens mate with many males, known as polyandryor where several queens lead a single colony, known as polygyny.
Therefore, they must rely on the location and architecture of their nests in order to regulate their temperature. For species of ants that migrate frequently, such as the Eciton burchellii, the location of the nest may be the most important thermoregulation tool. However, Eciton burchellii does not construct a physical nest.
Instead, it builds a living nest out of the individual colony members called a bivouac. Thermoregulation within these bivouacs is accomplished through the opening or sealing of airways. The colony members can also manipulate the bivouac to avoid rainfall or direct sunlight. Bivouacs are often found in hollow logs, animal burrows in the ground, and hanging in trees.
During each nomadic phase, a new nesting site must be found. This occurs primarily during the night. During the twenty-day stationary phase, the pupae and newly laid eggs develop, and the colony goes on raids about every other day.
During the fifteen-day nomadic phase, initiated after the eggs hatch and the pupae eclose, the colony goes on raids once every day.
The raids can be up to 20 meters in width and meters in length. This way, they ensure that there are available resources in their foraging area and they avoid any aggressive conspecific encounters. This allows for smaller prey to take shelter in the crevices of the leaf litter to hide from the oncoming ants.
Since numerous insects and other small prey can escape the swarm, the frequent raids of the ants do not desecrate an area's prey reserves.
- Ant follower
This chronic predation by the colonies will evolutionarily favor insects and other prey that possess adaptions to counteract the ants, such as chemical weaponry for defense or those that sexually mature at a smaller size. Since the larger Eciton burchellii ants require more prey for energy than other smaller ant colonies, only high biomass patches of prey will provide them with enough food. If the prey density in an area is too small, the colony may be forced to abandon the area and move on.
These attacks often involve the destruction of the wasp nest as Eciton burchellii consume the larva and pupa. The highest species diversity is found in the Amazon basinwith up to 45 species being found in single locations in sites across BrazilColombiaBolivia and Peru. The number of species drops dramatically towards the further reaches of the family's range; there are only seven species in Mexico, for example.
Areas of lower thamnophilid diversity may contain localised endemicshowever. The Yapacana antbirdfor example, is restricted to the stunted woodlands that grow in areas of nutrient-poor white-sand soil the so-called Amazonian caatinga in Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Many of the family are, however, reluctant to enter areas of direct sunlight where it breaks through the forest canopy.
Antbirds will engage in antinga behaviour in which ants or other arthropods are rubbed on the feathers before being discarded or eaten. In addition antbirds often take spiders, scorpions and centipedes. They swallow smaller prey items quickly, whereas they often beat larger items against branches in order to remove wings and spines.
Larger species can kill and consume frogs and lizards as well, but generally these do not form an important part of the diet of this family. The majority of antbirds are arborealwith most of those feeding in the understorymany in the middle story and some in the canopy.
A few species feed in the leaf litter ; for example, the wing-banded antbird forages in areas of dense leaf-litter. It does not use its feet to scratch the leaf litter, as do some other birds; instead it uses its long bill to turn over leaves rapidly never picking them up. Some species perch-gleanperching on a branch watching for prey and snatching it by reaching forward, where others sally from a perch and snatch prey on the wing.
The time paused varies, although smaller species tend to be more active and pause for shorter times. Here a male feeds on a caterpillar.Army Ants Rampage Through The Forest - The Hunt - BBC Earth
Many species participate in mixed-species feeding flocks forming a large percentage of the participating species within their range.
Some of these are core or "nuclear species". These nuclear species share territories with other nuclear species but exclude conspecifics members of the same species and are found in almost all flocks; these are joined by "attendant species". Loud and distinctive calls and conspicuous plumage are important attributes of nuclear species as they promote cohesion in the flock.
The composition of these flocks varies geographically; in Amazonia species of Thamnomanes antshrike are the leading nuclear species;  elsewhere other species, such as the dot-winged antwrens and checker-throated antwrensfill this role.
Comparisons between multi-species feeding flocks in different parts of the world found that instances of flocking were positively correlated with predation risk by raptors. These calls are understood and reacted to by all the other species in the flock. The advantage to the Thamnomanes antshrikes is in allowing the rest of the flock, which are typically gleaners, to act as beaters, flushing prey while foraging which the antshrikes can obtain by sallying.
Similar roles are filled in other flocks by other antbird species or other bird families, for example the shrike-tanagers. Swarms of army ants are an important resource used by some species of antbird, and the one from which the family's common name is derived. Many species of tropical ant form large raiding swarms, but the swarms are often nocturnal or raid underground.
While birds visit these swarms when they occur, the species most commonly attended by birds is the Neotropical species Eciton burchellii which is both diurnal and surface-raiding. It was once thought that attending birds were actually eating the ants, but numerous studies in various parts of Eciton burchellii's range has shown that the ants act as beaters, flushing insects, other arthropods and small vertebrates into the waiting flocks of "ant followers". The improvement in foraging efficiency can be dramatic; a study of spotted antbirds found that they made attempts at prey every Cinctus of abdominal segment IV a gradual concavity, not gutter-like.
Abdominal segment IV conspicuously largest segment. Abdominal tergite IV not folding over sternite, and anterior portions of sternite and tergite equally well visible in lateral view.
Girdling constriction between pre- and posttergites of abdominal segments V and VI absent. Girdling constriction between pre- and poststernites of abdominal segments V and VI absent. Pygidium small, reduced to narrow strip, without impressed medial field and simple, not armed with cuticular spines or modified setae.
Mid tibia with single pectinate spur. Hind tibia with single pectinate spur. Hind basitarsus not widening distally, circular in cross-section.
Posterior flange of hind coxa not produced as raised lamella. Metatibial gland present as patch of whitish cuticle occupying at least half of tibia length. Hind pretarsal claws each armed with a tooth. Queen Borowiec - Dichthadiiform, with eyes but no ocelli see e. Wheelerb, Borgmeier Male Borowiec - Head: Antennae with 13 segments.
Clypeus without cuticular apron. Propodeal declivity reduced, without distinct dorsal edge or margin. Metapleural gland opening absent. Petiole anterodorsally immarginate, dorsolaterally immarginate, and laterally above spiracle immarginate. Helcium in relation to tergosternal suture placed at suture and axial. Prora forming a simple, wide U-shaped margin not delimited by ridge. Spiracle openings of abdominal segments IV—VI slit-shaped.
Abdominal segment III more than half size of succeeding segment IV; latter weakly constricted at presegmental portion uninodal waist. Girdling constriction of segment IV absent, i.
Cinctus of abdominal segment IV absent, not impressed. Girdling constriction between pre- and postsclerites of abdominal segments V and VI absent. Abdominal segment IV not conspicuously largest segment.
Abdominal sternite VII simple. Abdominal sternite IX distally armed with two spines, with lateral apodemes longer than much reduced medial apodeme, directed anteriorly towards head. Cupula very long, nearing or surpassing length of rest of genital capsule and of approximately equal length on both dorsal and ventral surfaces.
Section 2: What is the relationship between ant-following birds and army ants?
Basimere narrowly fused to telomere, with suture modified into membrane at junction, and ventrally with left and right arms abutting. Telomere expanded at apex. Volsella laterally flattened, narrow and tapered towards tip. Penisvalva hook-like, strongly curved ventrally. Tegula present, broad, demiovate in shape.
Vein C in fore wing present. Cross-vein 1m-cu in fore wing present. Vein Cu in fore wing present, with both branches Cu1 and Cu2.
Do Antbirds Help or Hinder Army Ants? (Section 2: Background)
Vein C in hind wing absent. Vein R in hind wing present, reaching distal wing margin. Cross-vein cu-a in hind wing present. Vein Cu in hind wing present. Larvae Borowiec - Larvae of several Eciton species have been described by Wheeler and Wheeler and Wheeler b, A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea.
Classification of the foraging and driver ants, or Family Dorylidae, with a description of the genus Ctenopyga Ashm. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Harvard University Press, pp. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae.
Catalogo systematico e synonymico das formigas do Brasil. Dorylinae, Cerapachyinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae. Sobre algumas formigas dos generos Eciton e Cheliomyrmex Hym. Die Wanderameisen der neotropischen Region. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae Hymenoptera, Formicidae.
A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: Wash pageEciton in Ecitoninae Cresson, E. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus.
Origin and early stages of evolution in ants.
Antbird - Wikipedia
Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. Ashmeads neues System der Ameisen.