A Venn Diagram: 14 Points and the Treaty of Versailles by Kate Harris on Prezi
When press reports about Wilson's Fourteen Points first reached Germany, the American peace programme was indignantly dismissed. For that argument, let's have a look at the “Fourteen Points” Woodrow realist) and long-term (both idealist and realist) goals and what became of them. . That the Treaty of Versailles was much harsher on Germany than the If you're interested in the school of international relations theory that was. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it.
This serious challenge to Wilson within the United States increased the determination of the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, and the French Premier, Clemenceau, to push forward the demands of their own electorates.
Lloyd George won a crushing election victory in Britain in December,under the banner of 'making the Germans pay'. French opinion was even more vociferous in calling for security against future German aggression and for reparations for all the damage caused by the Germans in northern France. The Great War came to an end on 11 Novemberthe date when the Germans signed an armistice and agreed to peace negotiations on the basis of the Fourteen Points.
Their interpretation of these points was extremely broad, encompassing plebiscites in Alsace and Lorraine and on the German-Polish border to reflect Wilson's call for self-determination, and arguing that German Austrians, if they wished, should be allowed to unite with Germany.
German officials were not slow to recognise that Wilson's principles and 'new diplomacy' could be turned to Germany's advantage, and used to justify territorial gains in Europe, even in the face of military defeat.
Fourteen Points - New World Encyclopedia
Top Negotiations begin The Big Four, from left: The leaders of 32 countries, representing between them some three-quarters of the world's population, together with large numbers of advisers and scores of journalists descended on the French capital. Passions ran high and it took time to impose order on the proceedings. Discussions about possible peace terms were repeatedly interrupted by urgent political and military crises revolving around the renewal of the armistice with Germany, the threat of the spread of Bolshevism and continuing fighting in eastern Europe.
There was an assassination attempt on the French premier, Clemenceau.
Both Lloyd George and Wilson had to return home part-way through the conference to attend to urgent parliamentary business. Orlando of Italy stormed out in late April.
But after weeks of tortuous negotiations, a peace was finally hammered out and presented to the Germans on 7 May. Compared to the treaties which Germany had imposed on defeated Russia and Romania inthe Treaty of Versailles was quite moderate. It stripped Germany of just over 13 per cent of its territory, much of which, in the shape of Alsace and Lorraine, was returned to France. It also reduced Germany's economic productivity by about 13 per cent and its population by ten per cent.
Germany lost all of its colonies and large merchant vessels, 75 per cent of its iron ore deposits and 26 per cent of its coal and potash. Germany was to pay substantial reparations for 'civilian damage', because it was held responsible, along with its allies, for causing the war with its heavy losses.
However, a definite sum was not specified in the treaty, but would be decided upon after the conference by a specially-appointed Reparations Commission. Germany's army and navy were drastically cut in size, the army tolong-serving volunteers, and the country was forbidden to have an air force.
Despite these terms, Germany retained a strong economic, industrial and territorial position at the heart of Europe, with a vigorous and expanding population of 66 million. The peace settlement left it in a potentially dominant position in Europe, wounded but not seriously hurt.
This outcome reflected the aim of the United States and the allied powers at Paris, which was not to crush Germany or to break up the new empire, but rather to contain the country's military power. Top Germany incensed German cartoon: German leaders attacked the territorial losses to the new Polish state in the shape of the 'Polish corridor' and Upper Silesia, the prohibition on Anschluss or union with Austria, and the incorporation of large numbers of former Habsburg Sudeten Germans into the new state of Czechoslovakia as violations of Wilson's promises.
As a result of their bitter protests, the port of Danzig, with its close-on half a million German inhabitants, was established as a free city under the League of Nations rather than being ceded to Poland. In addition, the population of Upper Silesia was to be given the chance to vote in a future plebiscite on whether they wished to remain in Germany or become a part of the new Polish state.
45d. The Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
Other revisions were also built into the treaty. The Rhineland was to be occupied for 15 years, but troops were to be progressively withdrawn at five-year intervals provided Germany carried out the treaty terms. The inhabitants of the Saar basin were to be offered a plebiscite after 15 years to establish whether they wished to return to Germany, join France or remain under the supervision of the League of Nations.
The goal of point five was to dismantle European empires and to create new states organized along national-cultural lines. Points six to thirteen were specific steps for putting point five into action; for example, the monolith Austro-Hungarian Empire would be dismantled and out of it the nations of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakiaand parts of Yugoslavia would be created, each new nation sharing a common language, customs, and culture.
The realization of this point was the League of Nations. The League was to create a system of collective security that monitored world peace. Its armies were defeated and its people were starving, while the rumblings of German communists grew louder in the cities.
Idealism and Realism in the Fourteen Points | Clio's Board Games
Fearing both revolution at home and total collapse at the front, the government requested an armistice using the Fourteen Points as its foundation. The new government hoped that the gesture would ingratiate Germany with Wilson, and make him an ally of the new republic in the forthcoming peace negotiations. Wilson gives us the Fourteen Points.
To ensure the realization of his association of nations, Wilson had to betray self-determination and its associated points. Japanfor example, wanted Chinese territory previously in German hands and threatened to quit the conference and also the Leagueif not given what it wanted. Thus in the interests of his League of Nations, Wilson acquiesced and placed millions of Chinese in the control of the Japanese government.
Point three — the removal of economic barriers - also suffered under the imperial ambitions of the victors. Wilson hoped, however, that the league, once functioning, could adjust these compromises. Wilson only intended self-determination and the consent of the governed to apply to Europe.
His upbringing in the American Jim Crow South made him oblivious to including non-whites in any discussion of political and social rights. However, despite his focus on Europe, the ideas of self-determination and public consent found fertile soil among nationalists and intellectuals in the colonies of European and American empires.