Greek and Roman Gods
Learn about the Greek god of the sky and king of the gods, Zeus. and Semele) but was married to his sister Hera – goddess of marriage and monogamy. She is the protector of marrage and takes special care of married women. Hera's marriage was founded in strife with Zeus and continued in. Hera is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
He is often described as a strong, imposing man with a regal body and long, often curly, hair. He usually had a short beard or scruff and carried his trusty thunderbolt at all times. Facts about Zeus Zeus became the ruler of heaven and earth after a revolt against his father, Kronos.
In his position as king of the gods, Zeus had to play mediator when other the immortals were mad at each other. He is the father of Athena, who is said to have sprung from his head.
She was his favorite child, with whom he shared the thunderbolt and aegis.
Hades and Poseidon were his brothers. His wife Hera was also his sister. Zeus was not a faithful husband; he was known for having many affairs with mortal women. Zeus fathered Hercules, the famous Greek hero, by deception. When he did so, he appeared to her in the form of a golden shower.
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
Zeus, more recently known for causing thunder and lightning, was once a rain-god. He was always associated with the weather in some form. The Zeus described in Homer was not an extension of nature; instead, he had a standard of right and wrong that made him more relatable to mankind.
Before monarchies were rendered obsolete, Zeus protected the king and his family. He preferred the Trojans, but he wanted to stay neutral because Hera preferred the Greeks. She was insufferable when he opposed her openly. His union with Leto brought forth the twins Apollo and Artemis. When he seduced the Spartan queen Leda, Zeus transformed himself into a beautiful swan, and two sets of twins were born. When Zeus had an affair with Mnemosyne, he coupled with her for nine nights.
However, Hera was not fooled and demanded that Zeus give her the heifer as a present. Zeus could not refuse his queen without drawing suspicion so he had to give her the beautiful heifer.
Argus was a loyal servant to Hera and he has immense strength and one hundred eyes all over his body. It was not possible to go past Argus since he never closed more than half his eyes at any time.
The Rocky Relationship of Zeus and Hera
Zeus was afraid of Hera's wrath could not personally intervene, so to save Io, he commanded Hermes to kill Argus, which he does by lulling all one hundred eyes into eternal sleep. In Ovid 's interpolation, when Hera learned of Argus' death, she took his eyes and placed them in the plumage of the peacockher favorite animal, accounting for the eye pattern in its tail and making it the vainest of all animals.
Eventually Io made it to Egyptthe Egyptians worshiped the snow-white heifer and named her the Egyptian goddess Isis.
Hera permitted Zeus to change Io back into her human form, under the condition that he never look at her again. Io, the goddess-queen of Egypt, then bore Zeus' son as the next King. Judgement of Paris This is one of the many works depicting the event.
Hera is the goddess in the center, wearing the crown. She was annoyed at this, so she threw from the door a gift of her own: The goddesses quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. They chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Parisa Trojan prince.
After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy was situated, they appeared before Paris to have him choose.
The goddesses undressed before him, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera offered Paris political power and control of all of Asiawhile Athena offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite offered the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her.
12 Greek Gods and Goddesses
The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War. The Iliad[ edit ] Hera plays a substantial role in The Iliadappearing in a number of books throughout the epic poem. In accordance with ancient Greek mythology, Hera's hatred towards the Trojanswhich was started by Paris' decision that Aphrodite was the most beautiful goddess, is seen as through her support of the Greeks during the war.
Throughout the epic Hera makes many attempts to thwart the Trojan army. In books 1 and 2, Hera declares that the Trojans must be destroyed. Hera persuades Athena to aid the Achaeans in battle and she agrees to assist with interfering on their behalf.
Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly. Hera, Ares' mother, saw Ares' interference and asked ZeusAres' father, for permission to drive Ares away from the battlefield. Hera encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares and he threw his spear at the god.
Athena drove the spear into Ares' body, and he bellowed in pain and fled to Mt. Olympusforcing the Trojans to fall back. In book 8, Hera tries to persuade Poseidon to disobey Zeus and help the Achaean army. Determined to intervene in the war, Hera and Athena head to the battlefield. However, seeing the two flee, Zeus sent Iris to intercept them and make them return to Mt.
Olympus or face grave consequences. After prolonged fighting, Hera sees Poseidon aiding the Greeks and giving them motivation to keep fighting. In book 14 Hera devises a plan to deceive Zeus. Zeus set a decree that the gods were not allowed to interfere in the mortal war.
Hera is on the side of the Achaeans, so she plans a Deception of Zeus where she seduces him, with help from Aphrodite, and tricks him into a deep sleep, with the help of Hypnosso that the Gods could interfere without the fear of Zeus. Hephaestus sets the battlefield ablaze, causing the river to plead with Hera, promising her he will not help the Trojans if Hephaestus stops his attack.
Hephaestus stops his assault and Hera returns to the battlefield where the gods begin to fight amongst themselves. When Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to only repeat the words of others hence our modern word " echo ". Semele and Dionysus When Hera learned that Semeledaughter of Cadmus King of Thebeswas pregnant by Zeus, she disguised herself as Semele's nurse and persuaded the princess to insist that Zeus show himself to her in his true form.
When he was compelled to do so, having sworn by Styx  his thunder and lightning destroyed Semele. Zeus took Semele's unborn child, Dionysus and completed its gestation sewn into his own thigh. In another version, Dionysus was originally the son of Zeus by either Demeter or Persephone. Hera sent her Titans to rip the baby apart, from which he was called Zagreus "Torn in Pieces".
Zeus rescued the heart; or, the heart was saved, variously, by AthenaRheaor Demeter. Certain versions imply that Zeus gave Semele the heart to eat to impregnate her. Hera tricked Semele into asking Zeus to reveal his true form, which killed her.
Dionysus later managed to rescue his mother from the underworld and have her live on Mount Olympus. See also Dionysus' birth for other variations. Lamia Lamia was a queen of Libyawhom Zeus loved. Hera turned her into a monster and murdered their children. Or, alternatively, she killed Lamia's children and Lamia's grief and rage turned her into a monster. Lamia was cursed with the inability to close her eyes so that she would always obsess over the image of her dead children. Zeus gave her the gift to be able to take her eyes out to rest, and then put them back in.
Lamia was envious of other mothers and ate their children. The wrathful goddess turned her into a crane and proclaimed that her bird descendants should wage eternal war on the Pygmy folk. The oxen which were to pull her cart were overdue and her sons, Biton and Cleobispulled the cart the entire way 45 stadia8 kilometers. Cydippe was impressed with their devotion to her and Hera so asked Hera to give her children the best gift a god could give a person.