geography) must be refreshed too. Keywords: human-environment relations, determinism, possibilism, ecology, climate change . ways conscious philosophical view in the . tween humans and environment has resulted. in the genesis of. Determinist argues that 'man is entirely under the influence of nature'. However, the possibilist difference in subject matter is seen in dynamism, multi-. plicity of variables philosophy, religions, mathematics, physics, geography. and other. Environmental determinism, a concept we can trace to Greek and Arabic to develop an overarching, unifying philosophical framework and fashion the to “ to make clear the relationships between natural environments and the in general from the standpoint of man's adjustment to environment, rather.
The second, concerning human agency in nature development, became popular alongside global reconsideration of the human role in the universe, which took place at the time of the scientific revolution. Adepts of a third direction tend to interpret human-environment interaction as an integrated system, all elements of which are of equal importance and are engaged in complicated reciprocal influence.
Environmental determinism - Wikipedia
Interpretation of a human being as a passive sufferer originated in ancient natural philosophy. Since its very beginnings, the human being was regarded as a creature deeply dependent on its natural habitat.
As early as at the middle of 4th century B. Later climatic astrology also originated. The Enlightenment ideology reconsidered these ideas about total human dependence on nature and elaborated the wide circle of geographically and climatically deterministic theories C.
Binford and behavioral B. Schiffer archaeology, environmental psychology A. Belland phenomenological T. Ingold and actional E. Markaryan approaches to culture studies as phenomena inherent for an active and creative human being. In Soviet science, most attention was paid to the biological aspects of adaptation, with an emphasis on the human capacity to fit the requirements of natural environment.
At the end of 20th century, adaptive reaction has become the subject of special attention. To identify the possible character of human beings and human society in response to natural environmental changes, the concept of social and ecological resilience was introduced A. Thus, the idea of humans as nature modifiers and creators came to be. Roots of the idea of human domination over nature are traced as early as the Enlightenment times, when the human ability to solve rationally all his or her vital tasks was declared for the first time T.
During the 20th century, the idea of humans as nature-creators was conceptualized in the context theories of cultural O. Sauer and anthropogenic in Soviet science landscape, and the notion of landscape as series of sequent occupancies D.
In frameworks of postmodern methodology, this idea is conceptualized in the idea of landscape as artifact, based on two ideas T. One of them is that landscape should be interpreted as a mental image, which could not exist without human beings who elaborate it. Robinson have achieved notoriety for demonstrating that diseases and terrain have helped shape tendencies towards democracy versus dictatorship, and through these economic growth and development.
An Empirical Investigation,  the authors show that the colonial disease environment shaped the tendency for Europeans to settle the territory or not, and whether they developed systems of agriculture and labor markets that were free and egalitarian versus exploitative and unequal.Man and Environment Relationship in Geography
These choices of political and economic institutions, they argue, shaped tendencies to democracy or dictatorship over the following centuries. Factor endowment In order to understand the impact and creation of institutions during early state formation, economic historians Stanley Engerman and Kenneth Sokoloff examined the economic development of the Americas during colonization. These endowments included the climate, soil profitability, crop potential, and even native population density.
Institutions formed to take advantage of these factor endowments. Those that were most successful developed an ability to change and adapt to new circumstances over time. For example, the development of economic institutions, such as plantationswas caused by the need for a large property and labor force to harvest sugar and tobacco, while smallholder farms thrived in areas where scale economies were absent.
Though initially profitable, plantation colonies also suffered from large dependent populations over time as slaves and natives were given few rights, limiting the population available to drive future economic progress and technological development. This is demonstrated by the plantation owning elite using their power to secure long lasting government institutions and pass legislation that lead to the persistence of inequality society.
Engerman and Sokoloff found smallholder economies to be more equitable since they discouraged an elite class from forming, and distributed political power democratically to most land-owning males.
These differences in political institutions were also highly influential in the development of schools, as more equitable societies demanded an educated population to make political decisions.
Over time these institutional advantages had exponential effects, as colonies with educated and free populations were better suited to take advantage of technological change during the industrial revolution, granting country wide participation into the booming free-market economy.
Other variables such as factor endowments, technologies, and the creation of property rights are just as crucial in societal development. To encourage state success an institution must be adaptable and suited to find the most economical source of growth.
The authors also argue that while not the only means for success, institutional development has long lasting-economic and social effects on the state. They stress that there is no evidence that geographic endowments influence country incomes other than through institutions.
Other states like Canada with fewer endowments are more stable and have higher per capita incomes. They argue that Diamond correctly stresses the importance of germs and crops in the very long-run of societal technological development. However, Easterly and Levine's findings most support the view that long-lasting institutions most shape economic development outcomes. Relevant institutions include private property rights and the rule of law.
Nugent and James A. Robinson similarly challenge scholars like Barrington Moore who hold that certain factor endowments and agricultural preconditions necessarily lead to particular political and economic organizations.
They favored smallholders, held elections, maintained small militaries, and fought fewer wars. Other states like El Salvador and Guatemala produced coffee on plantations, where individuals were more disenfranchised. Whether a state became a smallholder or plantation state depended not on factor endowments but on norms established under colonialism —namely, legal statues determining access to land, the background of the governing elites, and the degree of permitted political competition.
Direct effects of geography on economic development[ edit ] Effects of terrain on trade and productivity[ edit ] Historians have also noted population densities seem to concentrate on coastlines and that states with large coasts benefit from higher average incomes compared to those in landlocked countries. Coastal living has proven advantageous for centuries as civilizations relied on the coastline and waterways for trade, irrigation, and as a food source.
They also have to rely on costly and time consuming over-land trade, which usually results in lack of access to regional and international markets, further hindering growth. Additionally, interior locations tend to have both lower population densities and labor-productivity levels. However, factors including fertile soil, nearby rivers, and ecological systems suited for rice or wheat cultivation can give way to dense inland populations. The results suggest that historically, ruggedness is strongly correlated with decreased income levels across the globe and has negatively impacted state growth over time.
They note that harsh terrain limited the flow of trade goods and decreased crop availability, while isolating communities from developing knowledge capital. However, the study also demonstrated that the terrain had positive effects on some African communities by protecting them from the slave trade. Communities that were located in areas with rugged features could successfully hide from slave traders and protect their homes from being destroyed. The study found that in these areas rugged topography produced long-term economic benefits and aided post-colonial state formation.
To do so, they measure economic growth with GDP per capita adjusted to purchasing power parity PPPwhile also taking into consideration population density and labor productivity.
Climate is closely correlated with agricultural production since without ideal weather conditions, agriculture alone will not produce the surplus supply needed to build and maintain economies. Locations with hot tropical climates often suffer underdevelopment due to low fertility of soils, excessive plant transpiration, ecological conditions favoring infectious diseases, and unreliable water supply.
They are also an economic drain on society due to high medical costs, and the unwillingness of foreign capital to invest in a sickly state. Because infectious diseases like malaria often need a warm ecology for growth, states in the mid to high latitudes are naturally protected from the devastating effects of disease.