What was Watergate? Here are 14 facts that explain everything
Haldeman and Nixon discuss the progress of the FBI's investigation This conversation also sheds some light on the CIA connection between Liddy and Hunt, . session for staff testimony; Chapin testimony as a test of Executive Privilege; PR. Unintentionally, within days of the Watergate arrests, Haldeman research with well-tested findings by psychologists and economists who. He was advising Henry at first on how to handle Haldeman and Ehrlichman. Haig's relationship with Nixon had become close after Cambodia, a period .. at HEW, be given a lie-detector test to determine his involvement.
The checks deposited into Barker's bank account were endorsed by Committee treasurer Hugh Sloan, who was authorized by the Finance Committee. However, once Sloan had endorsed a check made payable to the Committee, he had a legal and fiduciary responsibility to see that the check was deposited only into the accounts named on the check.
Sloan failed to do that. When confronted with the potential charge of federal bank fraud, he revealed that committee deputy director Jeb Magruder and finance director Maurice Stans had directed him to give the money to G. Liddy, in turn, gave the money to Barker, and attempted to hide its origin.
Barker tried to disguise the funds by depositing them into accounts in banks outside of the United States. What Barker, Liddy, and Sloan did not know was that the complete record of all such transactions were held for roughly six months.
Barker's use of foreign banks in April and Mayto deposit checks and withdraw the funds via cashier's checks and money orders, resulted in the banks keeping the entire transaction records until October and November All five Watergate burglars were directly or indirectly tied to the CRP, thus causing Judge Sirica to suspect a conspiracy involving higher-echelon government officials.
On October 10, the FBI reported the Watergate break-in was part of a massive campaign of political spying and sabotage on behalf of the Nixon re-election committee. Despite these revelations, Nixon's campaign was never seriously jeopardized; on November 7, the President was re-elected in one of the biggest landslides in American political history.
Role of the media The connection between the break-in and the re-election committee was highlighted by media coverage—in particular, investigative coverage by The Washington PostTimeand The New York Times. The coverage dramatically increased publicity and consequent political and legal repercussions. Relying heavily upon anonymous sourcesPost reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered information suggesting that knowledge of the break-in, and attempts to cover it up, led deeply into the upper reaches of the Justice Department, FBI, CIA, and the White House.
Woodward and Bernstein interviewed Judy Hoback Millerthe bookkeeper for Nixon, who revealed to them information about the mishandling of funds and records being destroyed. Chief among the Post's anonymous sources was an individual whom Woodward and Bernstein had nicknamed Deep Throat ; 33 years later, inthe informant was identified as William Mark Felt, Sr. Felt met secretly with Woodward several times, telling him of Howard Hunt's involvement with the Watergate break-in, and that the White House staff regarded the stakes in Watergate as extremely high.
Exclusive: Haldeman, Son of Watergate, Remembers His Father and President Nixon
Felt warned Woodward that the FBI wanted to know where he and other reporters were getting their information, as they were uncovering a wider web of crimes than the FBI first disclosed. All of the secret meetings between Woodward and Felt took place at an underground parking garage somewhere in Rosslyn over a period from June to January After the Post revealed that H.
Haldeman made payments from the secret fund, newspapers like the Chicago Tribune and the Philadelphia Inquirer failed to publish the information, but did publish the White House's denial of the story the following day. Time magazine described Nixon as undergoing "daily hell and very little trust. Inthe White House requested an audit of the tax return of the editor of Newsdayafter he wrote a series of articles about the financial dealings of Charles "Bebe" Rebozoa friend of Nixon.
Nixon's conversations in late March and all of April revealed that not only did he know he needed to remove Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Dean to gain distance from them, but he had to do so in a way that was least likely to incriminate him and his presidency. Nixon created a new conspiracy—to effect a cover-up of the cover-up—which began in late March and became fully formed in May and Juneoperating until his presidency ended on August 9, Trying to make them talk, Sirica gave Hunt and two burglars provisional sentences of up to 40 years.
On April 13, Magruder told U. Dean wanted to protect the president and have his four closest men take the fall for telling the truth.
During the critical meeting between Dean and Nixon on April 15,Dean was totally unaware of the president's depth of knowledge and involvement in the Watergate cover-up. It was during this meeting that Dean felt that he was being recorded. He wondered if this was due to the way Nixon was speaking, as if he were trying to prod attendees' recollections of earlier conversations about fundraising.
Dean mentioned this observation while testifying to the Senate Committee on Watergate, exposing the thread of what were taped conversations that would unravel the fabric of the conspiracy. On that same day, U.
They were later both indicted, convicted, and ultimately sentenced to prison.
H. R. Haldeman - Wikipedia
He asked for the resignation of Attorney General Kleindienst, to ensure no one could claim that his innocent friendship with Haldeman and Ehrlichman could be construed as a conflict. He fired White House Counsel John Dean, who went on to testify before the Senate Watergate Committee and said that he believed and suspected the conversations in the Oval Office were being taped.
This information became the bombshell that helped force Richard Nixon to resign rather than be impeached. In one of the most difficult decisions of my Presidency, I accepted the resignations of two of my closest associates in the White House, Bob Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, two of the finest public servants it has been my privilege to know.
Because Attorney General Kleindienst, though a distinguished public servant, my personal friend for 20 years, with no personal involvement whatsoever in this matter has been a close personal and professional associate of some of those who are involved in this case, he and I both felt that it was also necessary to name a new Attorney General.
Exclusive: Haldeman, Son of Watergate, Remembers His Father and President Nixon
The Counsel to the PresidentJohn Dean, has also resigned. Bernstein and Woodword in the Washington Post newsroom in May 7. The source was, in journalistic parlance, on deep background which meant he could not even be quoted anonymously. Woodward explains their relationship in this clip: By earlycracks began to appear in the cover-up of Watergate when FBI director Patrick Gray testified at hearings intended to confirm him as permanent director of the FBI that he had been asked to keep the White House abreast of the Watergate investigation on a daily basis.
Soon afterwards one of the Watergate burglars, James McCord, wrote to Judge John Sirica claiming that he had perjured himself in testimony by lying about the nature of the burglary saying it had been a CIA operation when in fact it involved other government officials.
Soon after Dean began co-operating with Watergate prosecutors and Gray resigned as head of the FBI after it emerged he had destroyed files connected to the scandal. John Dean gave a page prepared statement to the Senate Watergate Committee in Junelasting a total of seven hours.
Saturday Night Massacre The battle over the release of the tapes continued as the special prosecutor, Cox, refused to drop the subpoena. Later Nixon famously went in front of the media and the world at a press conference from Disney World in Florida to declare that he is not a crook: But the battle over the tapes continued and went all the way to the US Supreme Court where, with the exception of the recused Justice William Rehnquist whom Nixon had appointedthere was a unanimous ruling that they should be released.
It then emerged that there had been an minute section of the tapes erased. Resignation The game was up.
Facing certain impeachment after being told by Republican senators that they would vote in favour of such a motion, Nixon decided to resign, saying that the scandal over Watergate would prevent him from carrying out his duties: I have never been a quitter.
To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body. But as President, I must put the interest of America first. America needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad.