Edward II: Ancestry of Queen Isabella
Isabella I (Spanish: Isabel, 22 April – 26 November ) reigned as Queen of Castile from until her death. Her marriage to Ferdinand II of Aragon became the basis for the political Isabella and her brother Alfonso were left in King Henry's care. She, her mother, and Alfonso then moved to Arévalo. These were. Granada falls to the Christian forces of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I, Fall's resignation illuminated a deeply corrupt relationship between western. Queen Isabella's father was Philip IV, King of France, known as Philippe heiress of the age, she was much in demand as a marriage partner.
While it eventually produced a nation called Spain, their realms remained separate entities.
They moved their court around from city to city to maintain their dominion over a fragmented whole. Ferdinand and Isabella were exceptionally devout Christians by the standards of the day. They introduced the Inquisition in Castile in and were hand in glove with Pope Alexander VI—the Spaniard now remembered as the infamous Borgia Pope—from his accession in Catholic, from the lands they ruled.
The monarchs totted up an impressive record for genocide and persecution. In alone they conquered Granada, the last Moorish stronghold, driving out or enslaving the remaining Muslims, and expelled the Jews on the very day that Columbus set sail. They also persecuted the Roma, often called gypsies, whose peripatetic lifestyle was partly due to laws forbidding them to settle down in one place—much as medieval Jews acquired a reputation for expertise in banking by being forbidden to join any of the craft guilds that would have given them a broader choice of occupations.
Ferdinand and Isabella were quick to exploit the wealth of the Jews. Conversos, Jews who had expediently converted to Christianity, became their bankers. The Inquisition, a state-controlled Castilian tribunal, authorized by papal bull inthat soon extended throughout Spain, had the task of enforcing uniformity of religious practice. It was originally intended to investigate the sincerity of Conversos, especially those in the clergy, who had been accused of being crypto-Jews.
Reconquest of Spain
Tomas de Torquemada, a descendant of Conversos, was the most effective and notorious of the Inquisition's prosecutors. For years religious laws were laxly enforced, particularly in Aragon, and converted Jews and Moriscos continued to observe their previous religions in private. Inhowever, a serious rebellion broke out among the Moriscos of Andalusia, who sealed their fate by appealing to the Ottoman Empire for aid.
The incident led to mass expulsions throughout Spain and to the eventual exodus of hundreds of thousands of Conversos and Moriscos, even those who had apparently become devout Christians. In the exploration and exploitation of the New World, Spain found an outlet for the crusading energies that the war against the Muslims had stimulated. In the fifteenth century, Portuguese mariners were opening a route around Africa to the East.
At the same time as the Castilians, they had planted colonies in the Azores and in the Canary Islands also Canaries; Spanish, Canariasthe latter of which had been assigned to Spain by papal decree. The conquest of Granada allowed the Catholic Kings to divert their attention to exploration, although Christopher Columbus's first voyage in was financed by foreign bankers. The Treaty of Tordesillas, which Spain and Portugal signed one year later, moved the line of division westward and allowed Portugal to claim Brazil.
New discoveries and conquests came in quick succession. These officials set off with the Herculean task of restoring peace for the province. The officials were successful. They succeeded in driving over 1, robbers from Galicia. The reign of Henry IV had left the kingdom of Castile in great debt. Upon examination, it was found that the chief cause of the nation's poverty was the wholesale alienation of royal estates during Henry's reign.
The Cortes of Toledo of came to the conclusion that the only hope of lasting financial reform lay in a resumption of these alienated lands and rents.Isabella of Castile - Top 5 Facts
This decision was warmly approved by many leading nobles of the court, but Isabella was reluctant to take such drastic measures. It was decided that the Cardinal of Spain would hold an enquiry into the tenure of estates and rents acquired during Henry IV's reign.
Those that had not been granted as a reward for services were to be restored without compensation, while those that had been sold at a price far below their real value were to be bought back at the same sum. While many of the nobility were forced to pay large sums of money for their estates, the royal treasury became ever richer.
Isabella's one stipulation was that there would be no revocation of gifts made to churches, hospitals, or the poor. During Henry's reign, the number of mints regularly producing money had increased from just five to During the first year of her reign, Isabella established a monopoly over the royal mints and fixed a legal standard to which the coinage had to approximate[ citation needed ].
By shutting down many of the mints and taking royal control over the production of money, Isabella restored the confidence of the public in the Crown's ability to handle the kingdom's finance. Government[ edit ] Both Isabella and Ferdinand established very few new governmental and administrative institutions in their respective kingdoms.
Especially in Castile, the main achievement was to use more effectively the institutions that had existed during the reigns of John II and Henry IV.
True Confessions of Ferdinand and Isabella | Author Suzanne Adair
The household was traditionally divided into two overlapping bodies. The first body was made up of household officials, mainly people of the nobility, who carried out governmental and political functions for which they received special payment. The second body was made up of some permanent servants or continos who performed a wide range of confidential functions on behalf of the rulers. The positions of a more secretarial nature were often held by senior churchmen.
Substantial revenues were attached to such offices and were therefore enjoyed greatly, on an effectively hereditary basis, by the great Castilian houses of nobility. While the nobles held the titles, individuals of lesser breeding did the real work.
The Council, under the monarch, had full power to resolve all legal and political disputes. The Council was responsible for supervising all senior administrative officials, such as the Crown representatives in all of the major towns. It was also the supreme judicial tribunal of the kingdom. Previously there had been two distinct yet overlapping categories of royal councillor.
One formed a group which possessed both judicial and administrative responsibilities. This portion consisted of some bishops, some nobles, and an increasingly important element of professional administrators with legal training known as letrados.
Reconquest of Spain - HISTORY
The second category of traditional councillor had a less formal role. This role depended greatly on the individuals' political influence and personal influence with the monarch. During Isabella's reign, the role of this second category was completely eliminated. Because of this, this second type of councillor, usually of the nobility, was only allowed to attend the council of Castile as an observer.
Isabella began to rely more on the professional administrators than ever before. These men were mostly of the bourgeoisie or lesser nobility. The Council was also rearranged and it was officially settled that one bishop, three caballerosand eight or nine lawyers would serve on the council at a time. While the nobles were no longer directly involved in the matters of state, they were welcome to attend the meetings.
Isabella hoped by forcing the nobility to choose whether to participate or not would weed out those who were not dedicated to the state and its cause. Therefore, Isabella and Ferdinand set aside a time every Friday during which they themselves would sit and allow people to come to them with complaints.
This was a new form of personal justice that Castile had not seen before. The Council of State was reformed and presided over by the King and Queen. This department of public affairs dealt mainly with foreign negotiations, hearing embassies, and transacting business with the Court of Rome. In addition to these departments, there was also a Supreme Court of the Santa Hermandad, a Council of Finance, and a Council for settling purely Aragonese matters.
Isabella and her husband moved in the direction of a non-parliamentary government and the Cortes became an almost passive advisory body, giving automatic assent to legislation which had been drafted by the royal administration.