Types of Relationships: Communal & Exchange | Social Psych Online
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationship – association between two or more people; this association may be based on limerence, love, solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. . Social exchange theory – a social-psychological and. But the basic principles of social psychology can also be applied to help us .. only in the very best romantic relationships), whereas the other types of love are. However, close relationships themselves divide into two further categories: platonic A social psychological approach to close relationships focuses on the .
When things go wrong: Intimacy, social support, and health Gender and social support When things go right: Capitalizing on positive events Research on Close Relationships Most research on close relationships uses nonexperimental designs.
As a result, no causal conclusions among variables can be drawn. The Partner Becomes Part of the Self In a close relationship, differences between the self and the other are erased; through self-disclosure and extensive interaction, one 1 gets to know the other person's inner life, 2 gets to know every aspect of the other person's life, 3 gets to know the reasons behind the other person's behaviors and preferences shares the other person's perspectiveand 4 influences the other person's behavior.
This way, mental representations of self and other are linked into a single unit, and partners become cognitively interdependent. Insider versus outsider perspectives on relationships Outsiders friends could predict better than insiders partners themselves whether the partner's relationship will last.
This is due to disclosures about the relationship from insiders to outsiders. Through processes of interdependence, the partner becomes linked to a person's self-concept.
Transformations in Exchange Changes in the distribution of rewards The nature of exchange of rewards is different in close relationships; rewards are exchanged out of affection and care. Because the partner becomes part of the self, his or her needs and desires are not ignored. As well as the reasons for rewards, the type of reward is also different in close relationships; whereas material rewards are exchanged in casual relationships, love and emotional support are exchanged in close relationships.
Attributions in close relationships: It's the thought that counts Feelings and intentions that are conveyed by an act are more important than the act itself in close relationships.
Because the partner is part of the self, attributions of the partner's behaviors are also biased in a self-serving way; positive behaviors are inflated in significance and attributed to inner qualities, whereas negative behaviors are minimized and attributed to situational causes. Intimacy and Commitment Feelings of closeness change the sense of intimacy and the level of commitment to the relationship. Psychological intimacy Intimacy is defined as a positive emotional bond that includes understanding and support.
Outline of relationships - Wikipedia
Intimacy is enhanced by interactions that involve self-disclosure step 1which is responded to with acceptance, acknowledgment, and understanding step 2. This response, in turn, makes the self-discloser feel understood, valued, and esteemed step 3. Intimate feelings are deeply linked with positive emotions of warmth, connectedness, and caring, and are so important to human needs that this is the most central reward of close relationships.
Bowlby ; see SP pp. Commitment Commitment reflects the intention and desire to maintain a relationship for the long term, as well as a strong emotional bond to the partner. When partners are committed, they feel comfortable relying on each other for intimacy, advice, and support, and this influences their actions and feelings.
Three factors are involved that create and maintain commitment.
Relationships and Attraction
The first is satisfaction with the relationship. This is an evaluation of the rewards of a relationship compared with the rewards one believes would be available in alternative relationships a comparison level for alternatives.
The second factor is seeing the rewards of your relationship as unique, as not available in alternative relationships. For all of these reasons, relationships with stronger commitment last longer. Types of People, Types of Relationships Attachment styles People have an innate tendency to form emotional attachments to others. Our experience with other people influences the ways in which we approach close relationships.
Our beliefs about the self, other people, and the nature of relationships are summarized by our attachment style.Sternberg's Theory of Love: Intimacy, Commitment, Passion
Four different attachment styles can be distinguished, with two underlying dimensions; view of others and view of self. On the contrary, … these relationships should be considered in dynamic and interdependent fashions and moreover each of these tripartite associations, in despite of their systemic relationships, go through transformations due to various different kinds of situations. For instance, when the culture and civilization of any nation goes through vital changes then the forms of relationships do get transformed too; namely, some relationships increase and others decrease.
In a nutshell, the characteristics and qualities as well as features of relationships follow the cycles of changes and transformations in a fundamental fashion.
Primary Movement By primary movement Allama Jafari refers to progressive and prosperous movements such as reproduction in sexual relationships; defensive movements for obtaining power; or progressive movements in domains of civilization and culture and so on and so forth.
The curve of movement in natural relationship could go upward or downward.
Social Psychology: Third Edition by Eliot R. Smith and Diane M. Mackie
For instance, in reference to sexual instinct as a form of relationship, the reproductive instinct is per se desirable. The wisdom of nature … has bestowed upon humanity such a wonderful design that a hefty desire to function as a drive which would assure the cycle of human reproduction ad infinitum. If there was no desire or passion between the sexes the human population could not grow to this extent on the planet.
A cursory look at the social life and its various forms and varieties demonstrate clearly that although not having children could cause some sort of inconvenience nevertheless the more important issue, i. Thus the question of desire is an issue on its own right in human context, which should not be neglected as an epiphenomenon.
In other words, beauty has its own locus within the parameters of human life as human being is essentially aesthete and delights over beauty. It should be vehemently emphasized that this aesthetical yearning is part of being human. But as far as the psychological relationships are concerned the transformations and alterations are both prominent and significant. But along the course of history and due to social growth the geometry of relationships get more complicated and multifaceted which make the very principle of dominance in the form of dominance of powerful over the powerlessin despite of its presence, in its conventional sense meaningless.
Because in more developed societies the very exterior as well as interior dimensions of relationship has evolved in a very unprecedented fashion which makes the antique forms of power relationship unfeasible. The relationship between master and disciple, colleague and coworker, teacher and student, faithful and unfaithful, us and them and all kinds of associations which touch the boundaries of dialogue or conflict and cooperation or enmity are forms of psychological relationships.
In other words, the being of humanity is based on the pre-epistemological notion of soul which plays a very vital role in the constitution of metaphysical dimensions of alethia or truth.
- Types of Relationships: Communal & Exchange
- Chapter 4: Sociology and Three Kinds of Relationships
- Social Psychology/Relationships
To deny this spiritual dimension of human self is tantamount to reduction of psychological aspect into natural relationship.
Thus we need to clarify what kinds of background assumptions we hold.
Do we assume that human self has a human nature? Or do we refer to the socially constructed human person in our sociological analysis? Because if we assume that the establishment of spiritual relationship is a possibility of highest importance then we can reach to more sublime shores of realization and transcendence which are not feasible within the parameters of either natural or contractual relationships.
Allama Jafari raises a metasociological question in terms of whatness of sociology.
In other words, the unclarity of sociological concepts seems to be a disclarity problem, i. To put it otherwise, why is there so much confusion over the very state of social and human sciences? It seems Allama Jafari is trying to find out what are the problems in the contexts of naturalistic versus humanistic approaches to social and human sciences by arguing that our … conception of mental and substantive concepts is indeterminate and problematic.
The concepts are sometimes so disorganized and muddled that a comprehensible debate over human science issues may seem often an unachievable task. If we approach the prime subject of human sciences, i. In delineating the boundaries between various schools of sociology the pivotal role of values is undeniable and this is the dominant reason why sociologists are unable to agree upon fundamental questions of sociology. This kind of movement could occur within the context of natural relationships.
For instance, when the water resources are dried out in a village and famine may break out then the village could get transformed but this change is not of the first order. On the contrary, the transformation in this case is of the second order, i. Another example could be the fall of ancient nations and civilizations where the beneficial factors are considered as harmful and detrimental factors are viewed as favorable trends.
By losing sight and embarking upon a mistaken path they may have created the necessary conditions for change in their respective societies but the curve of movement, unlike the primary move, is downward and destructive. For instance, when in the mind of an artist or a scientist a new idea sparks this could lead towards some kind of changes within the larger society without being destructive or constructive in the aforementioned sense.
However these changes are essentially favorable in terms of transformation by generating a novel element in the fabric of society which, in turn, could be instrumental in the future transformations.