Proving the music video still reigns paramount in the pop world, Billboard's critics 1 hit on the U.S. Dance Club Songs chart in .. video game, racking up high scores and eventually meeting at the center of the earth. . It's safe to assume that the peak into this informal world is highly curated, but. Up a flight of steps and you're in dance and hip hop heaven. They meet other music fans as well and we all end up talking about . The shop also trades in vintage hi-fi, audio equipment and instruments including turntables, tape decks, is as much an archive for Golden-era Thai pop as a record store. Techno Terms A type of storage device that looks just like an audio CD and stores as much data as a large .. Intersection: The point at which two lines meet. . This term refers to an informal code of conduct that governs what is generally . POP: A server using the Post Office Protocol, which holds users' incoming e- mail.
A device such as a printer is on-line when it's turned on and accessible to a computer. If you're not on-line then you're off-line. On-line Service A commercial service that for a price provides goodies such as e-mail, discussion forums, tech support, software libraries, news, weather reports, stock prices, plane reservations, even electronic shopping malls.
To access one, you need a modem. Operating System Software that supervises and controls tasks on a computer. Ortho Straight, horizontal, vertical Orthographic Projection also called: It uses multiple views of the object.
While some Internet literature use the term to refer specifically to data sent across a physical network, other literature views the Internet as a packet switching network and describes IP Datagrams as packets. Packet-switching Data transmission process, utilizing addressed packets, whereby a channel is occupied only for the duration of the packet transmission.
SDSUnet is a are packet-switching network. Paint The oldest and most limited Macintosh graphic file format, holding only black-and-white bit maps at 72 dpi. Paint files file type PNTG are limited to 8 by 10 inches. A type of port that transmits data in parallel several bits side by side. Parameter A word, number, or symbol that is typed after a command to further specify how the command should function.
Parity A check bit used to make the sum of the bits in a unit of data either even or odd including the parity bit. A unit of data that is 8 bits long would have no parity, and a unit of data 7 bits long would have an even parity bit to make an 8 bit word. Parity is used to check a unit of data for errors during transmission through phone lines or null modem cables. Paste To insert information from the Clipboard. Information can be pasted multiple times. Path A route used in finding, retrieving, and storing files on a disk.
The course leading from the root directory of a drive to a particular file. PCMCIA A standard format for credit-card-size expansion cards, used to add features to laptop computers, hand-held computers, and desktop computers. A PDF file is an electronic facsimile of a printed document. Peer-to-peer A network setup that allows every computer to both offer and access network resources, such as shared files, without requiring a centralized file server.
Macintosh computers utilize this type of network setup.
Peripheral A piece of hardware that's outside the main computer. It usually refers to external hardware such as disk drives, printers, and scanners sold by a third party. Personell In business or industry the term personell refers to the employees working for that business or organization. PICS The standard macintosh graphic file format for animations. Essentially a collection of bit-mapped PICT images in sequential order, much like movie frames.
This format is ideal for on-screen presentations, but page layout programs sometimes have problems with PICT files.
Synth-pop - Wikipedia
Files are sometimes called metafiles because they can contain both bit maps and QuickDraw-based objects. Digital images are composed of touching pixels, each having a specific color or tone. The eye merges differently colored pixels into continuous tones. It allows you to compress or "zip" a file or a number of files into one archive file in the ZIP file format.
Plug-In Extends the capabilities of a web browser, allowing the browser to run multimedia files. Posterization The conversion of continuous tone data into a series of visible tonal steps or bands. Post-Consumer Materials The Paper, plastics, rubber, etc. In other words, things we would normally throw away or re-cycle when we're done with them.
Units of measurement for scanned images. Primary color A base color that is used to compose the other colors. Printer A device that transfers information you create on the computer into a printed paper form. Most printers will output both black and white and color pages. Profile The color characteristics of an input or output device, used by a CMS to ensure color fidelity. Project To extend vertically or horizontally. Propulsion The act of moving an carrier of people or goods over a distance.
The power plant used to drive the vehicles can vary widely. Some common propulsion power plant are internal combustion engines, electric motors, steam engines, and magnetic levitation. The proliferation of acts led to an anti-synth backlash, with groups including Spandau Ballet, Human League, Soft Cell and ABC incorporating more conventional influences and instruments into their sounds.
It made heavy use of style-conscious New Romantic synth-pop acts,   with " I Ran So Far Away " by A Flock of Seagulls generally considered the first hit by a British act to enter the Billboard Top Ten as a result of exposure through video.
In the mids, key artists included solo performer Howard Joneswho S. Erlewine has stated to have "merged the technology-intensive sound of new wave with the cheery optimism of hippies and late-'60s pop",  although with notable exceptions including the lyrics of "What Is Love? Synth-pop continued into the late s, with a format that moved closer to dance music, including the work of acts such as British duos Pet Shop Boys Erasure  and the Communards.
Indietronica began to take off in the new millennium as the new digital technology developed, with acts such as Broadcast from the UK, Justice from France, Lali Puna from Germany, and Ratatat and the Postal Service from the US, mixing a variety of indie sounds with electronic music, largely produced on small independent labels. Between andit began to move into the mainstream with Ladytronthe Postal ServiceCut CopyThe Bravery and The Killers all producing records that incorporated vintage synthesizer sounds and styles that contrasted with the dominant genres of post-grunge and nu metal.
In particular, The Killers enjoyed considerable airplay and exposure and their debut album Hot Fuss reached the top ten of the Billboard Following the breakthrough success of Lady Gaga with her single " Just Dance "the British and other media proclaimed a new era of female synth-pop stars, citing artists such as Little BootsLa Rouxand Ladyhawke.
Problems playing this file? American singer Kesha has also been described as an electropop artist,   with her electropop debut single " Tik Tok "  topping the Billboard Hot for nine weeks in Their breakthrough came in with the album Gamewhich led to a renewed interest in technopop within mainstream Japanese pop music. Networks, action nets and non-human actors A brief review of previous studies of formal and informal organising in the Soviet Un- ion is required here.
Several schools of thought could be distinguished but all tend to share an assumption that informal associations in the Soviet Union were either created in explicit opposition to the official regime or emerged despite formal organisations. A different approach was formulated within the revisionist para- digm by the sociologist Alena Ledeneva in the s. Although support of some local leaders was ensured, for instance, the head of the State Planning Insti- tute of the Lithuanian SSR was involved in the process.
Blat relations, according to Ledeneva, were not limited to barter exchange, but included provision of access to services, goods and resources. Further, such informal re- lations that lead to better access were not necessarily reciprocal. According to organisation scholars Kajsa Lindberg and Barbara Czarniawska, In an action net perspective A contractor becomes a contractor not simply by becoming known as a contractor, but by providing what is required to construct a building.
Ac- tion nets precede networks, or already stabilised groupings of defined actors. An action net may or may not stabilise into a network. The network, in turn, would further stabilise the identities of actors or their roles in that particular system of practices. Coined in order to shift the focus of study from actors to actions, the notion of the action net has the potential to highlight somewhat neglected aspects of informality in the Soviet Union.This is Your Fight Song (Rachel Platten Scottish Cover) - The Piano Guys
Soviet informal- ity, most often captured in the special word blat, has been generally regarded as a unique and thoroughly negative phenomenon.
In contrast to The Russian word blat is not synonymous with bribery. Although officially blat 8 was regarded as a vice, former Soviet actors retrospectively take pride in blat practices. For example, the Soviet Lithuanian minister of culture in his memoirs defended the So- viet economy of favours: Blat, Networking and Informal Ex- change Cambridge,pp. The case analysed below will show that informal relations derived their power from being anchored in formal organisations. It was a loose coupling between formal organ- isations and the construction of informal action nets that made it pos- sible to get done things which were not included in central plans.
From this point of view, it was humans who constitut- ed the non-Soviet or anti-Soviet society and who were the harbingers of transformation of the authoritarian regime. Humans and humans only submerged post-Soviet countries in a swamp of corruption. Ledeneva, How Russia Really Works: Informal organising could be used to create the public good, for instance, a museum.
However, informal organising could also be used to create closed networks of exclusive privilege, covering up and corruption. The crea- tion of public goods and intensifying of nepotism could go hand in hand. In her studies Ledeneva out- lines a rich taxonomy of informal relations in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia and describes these relations with local categories, such as blat, krugovaia poruka.
This linguistic definition alone suggests that networks do not hover in hu- man minds, but are made from material things, such as telephone wires or threads of documents. This constructed and material na- ture of networks was highlighted in actor-network-theory ANT. Latour puts it, social relations are always embodied and stabilised through materiality.
Yet the case of the creation of a new museum, analysed below, shows how non-human actors stimulated both formal cooperation between organisations and uses of informal ties. In stimulating cooperation in this way, material things perform as boundary objects: The creation and management of boundary objects is a key process in developing and maintaining coherence across intersecting social worlds.
Grei- mas to describe an actor, human or non-human, that performs a role in a certain narrative programme. Callon in the s and became part of the new analytical apparatus developed within actor-network-theory ANT. Latour, Reassembling the Social: Leigh Star and J. The Sea Museum emerged thanks to the skilful acts of translation between different worlds, which belonged to Russian and Lithuanian communist officials, but also sailors and heritage specialists and city administrators, seals and penguins.
Having annually attracted overvisitors, the Sea Mu- seum, unusual for a public cultural sector organisation, generated rea- sonable profit. Perhaps the most striking part of this story is that although the construction of the Sea Museum was illegal, its creators were awarded the State Prize of the Lithuanian SSR in For example, the Sea Museum received less than other state museums in state subsidy per visitor and earned more per visitor in and There are 31 indoor aquaria.
Inthe Museum contained the following exhibitions: Acting as a true entrepre- neur, the chairperson provided the initial stimulus and administrative and personal patronage of the emergent museum, as he was able to involve top decision-makers of Soviet Lithuania in informal action nets when access to severely limited resources was necessary. Fourth, the geographical location was a good hiding place: Material structures could be hidden more easily than formal organisations.
Even the construction of a new building for the Supreme Council in Vilnius was started without official approval of the Lithuanian SSR Politburo in The construction of this building was halted by Moscow as it imposed a ban on new ad- ministrative buildings. However, thanks to personal lobbying at the higher decision- making organ, the all-union Politburo in Moscow, construction was resumed and completed.
Law edPower, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? London,pp. It was administratively easier to establish in fact new museums as branches of existing museums, for example, the highly popular Museum of Amber was created as a branch of the Lithuanian Art Museum. The history of the Sea Museum has ac- tually been described in numerous articles in the press.
In addition, stories of the creation of the museum are presented in the published memoirs of important figures in the cultural policy of Soviet Lithua- nian. The most important source here is the memoir by the director of the Sea Museum, A. His memoir is a sophisticated literary work, with a lot of attention to detail and rich ethnographic descrip- tions of organising, but also peppered with racist and sexist jokes.
Memoirs and internally produced institutional histories are usually biased towards emphasising the importance of the authors. However, this bias is also useful, as memoirs tend to detail personal networks and informal relations. Thus, the memoirs form the basic material for my analysis. This would entail a traditional archival study, which would possibly throw light over interesting questions, such as whether informal relations and especially action nets preceded or followed formal actions.
It would also be interesting to find out whether any particular spheres could only get organised through formal actions. This study hinted at some such spheres, for example, deals with foreign currency. In the s—s, building cultural venues became a means for the expression of status for Soviet leaders at various lev- els.
Although actively discouraged by the central administration in Moscow, such buildings were erected as signs of economic affluence and autonomy. Chairpersons of collective farms took pride in the construction of massive houses of culture; the head of the Planning Committee was proud of the Vilnius Academic Drama Theatre. The city is situated on the Baltic Sea, in an area that historically belonged to Prussia and later the German em- pire. Okuopuotos Lietuvos istorija Vilnius,p. The city bounced back quickly and had 48, inhabit- 31 ants in Only 40 per cent, however, were Lithuanian-language speakers.
The city witnessed massive population displacement. These flows were tightly regulated as they crossed the Iron Curtain: Construction of a museum is traditionally regarded as an intellectual venture, but published de- scriptions of the construction of the Sea Museum have little to do with intellectual ambition.
In contrast, these descriptions are plotted as tales of manly games and challenging adventures. It seems that it was not ideas, but daring actions, which mattered most in this case of museum building. The creation of new museums was not strictly centralised in the Soviet Union. Although most large museums were established by a decree of the Minister of Culture, smaller museums could be estab- lished by other administrative units, for example, trade unions or lo- cal authorities.
Universities and the Soviet Academy of Science were also active creators of important museums. Given the ambition, scale and complexity of the Sea Museum, it does, however, stand out as an 31 V. In- deed, as mentioned earlier, it was the size, cost and complexity which would have made this grand project impossible to implement through central planning. The building dedicated to science and leisure could not be defended against the higher priorities of industrial and housing development.
The vision of the Sea Museum could be understood as an entre- preneurial project that was first driven by the City Council chairman, who later delegated the museum to a small team of professionals.