Sumerian religion - Wikipedia
Sumerian religion was polytheistic—or worshipped multiple gods—many of which Mesopotamia known as the Akkadians—named after the city-state of Akkad. area of research. Chapters iv and v treat Sumerian religion and literature, the intimate connection between the ancient Hebrews and Sumerians than has been . and timber, the state was forced to obtain the material essential to its economy . was the first to describe parts of the Ishtar Gate, a beautiful replica of which. Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first . During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the Sumerian city-state of Lagash was said to have had sixty-two . Their order of importance and the relationships between the deities has been examined during the study of cuneiform tablets.
This is where a city government would rule the city as well as the land around it. These city-states often fought each other. They built walls around their cities for protection. Farmland was outside the walls, but people would retreat to the city when invaders came. There were many city-states throughout Sumer.
Eridu is thought to be the first of the major cities formed and one of the oldest cities in the world. Sumerian Rulers and Government Each city-state had its own ruler. They went by various titles such as lugal, en, or ensi.
- Sumerian religion
- The Sumerians and Mesopotamia
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The ruler was like a king or governor. The ruler of the city was often the high priest of their religion as well. This gave him even more power. The most famous king was Gilgamesh of Uruk who was the subject of the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the world's oldest surviving works of literature. In addition to the king or governor, there was a fairly complex government with officials who helped to organize city building projects and keep the city running.
Enki was god of freshwater, male fertility, and knowledge.
He was the father of Utu and one of the patron deities of Ur. Ningal was the wife of Nanna,  as well as the mother of Utu, Inanna, and Ereshkigal. Ereshkigal was the goddess of the Sumerian Underworldwhich was known as Kur. An was the ancient Sumerian god of the heavens. He was the ancestor of all the other major deities  and the original patron deity of Uruk.
Sumerian mythology and religious practices were rapidly integrated into Akkadian culture,  presumably blending with the original Akkadian belief systems that have been mostly lost to history. His primary temple was in Erech.
He and Enlil give various gods, goddesses, and kings their earthly regions of influence and their laws. Enki seats him at the first seat of the table in Nippur at the feast celebrating his new house in Eridu. He hears Inanna's complaint about Mount Ebih Kur? After the flood, he and Enlil make Ziusudra immortal and make him live in Dilmun.
Ninhursag Ki, Ninmah, Nintu Ki is likely to be the original name of the earth goddess, whose name more often appears as Ninhursag queen of the mountainsNinmah the exalted ladyor Nintu the lady who gave birth. Most often she is considered Enlil's sister, but in some traditions she is his spouse instead. She was born, possibly as a unified cosmic mountain with An, from Nammu and shortly thereafter, their union produced Enlil.
It seems likely that she and An were the progenitors of most of the gods. She later unites with Enlil and with the assistance of Enki they produce the world's plant and animal life. Uttu bore eight new trees from Enki. When he then ate Uttu's children, Ninhursag cursed him with eight wounds and dissapears.
After being persuaded by Enlil to undo her curse, she bore Enki eight new children which undid the wounds of the first ones. Enki seats her as Nintu on the big side of the table in Nippur at the feast celebrating his new house in Eridu. Enki, having been propted by Nammu to create servants for the gods, describes how Nammu and Ninmah will help fashion man from clay. Prior to getting to work, she and Enki drink overmuch at a feast. She then shapes six flawed versions of man from the heart of the clay over the Abzu, with Enki declaring their fates.
Which statement shows how the Sumerian religion and government were - ProProfs
Enki, in turn also creates a flawed man which is unable to eat. Ninmah appears to curse him for the failed effort. Enlil An and Ki's union produced Enlil Lord of 'lil'. Enlil was the air-god and leader of the pantheon from at least BC, when his temple Ekur in Nippur was the spiritual center of Sumer In the early days he separated and carried off the earth Ki while An carried off heaven He assumed most of An's powers.
He is glorified as "'the father of the gods, 'the king of heaven and earth,' ' the king of all the lands'". Kramer portrays him as a patriarchal figure, who is both creator and disciplinarian. Enlil causes the dawn, the growth of plants, and bounty He also invents agricultural tools such as the plow or pickaxe Without his blessings, a city would not rise Kramer pp. He tells the various underworld guardians to not reveal his whereabouts and instead poses as those guardians himself three times, each time impregnating her again it appears that at least on one occasion Enlil reveals his true self before they unite.
The products of these unions are three underworld deities, including Meslamtaea aka. Later, when Nanna visits him in Nippur, he bestows Ur to him with a palace and plentiful plantlife.
He is given bread at Enki's feast and is seated next to An, after which Enlil proclaims that the Anunnaki should praise Enki. This area has places for Lahar to take care of the animals and Ashnan to grow the crops. The two agricultural deities get drunk and begin fighting, so it falls to Enlil and Enki to resolve their conflict - how they do so has not been recovered.
He settles a dispute between Emesh and Enten over who should be recognized as 'farmer of the gods', declaring Enten's claim to be stronger. Enlil and a fox entreat her to return and undo her curse. Enlil refuses to assist him. Enki Enki is the son of Nammu, the primeval sea. Contrary to the translation of his name, Enki is not the lord of the earth, but of the abzu the watery abyss and also semen and of wisdom. This contradiction leads Kramer and Maier to postulate that he was once known as En-kur, lord of the underworld, which either contained or was contained in the Abzu.
He did struggle with Kur as mentioned in the prelude to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld", and presumably was victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" the realm.
He is a god of water, creation, and fertility. He also holds dominion over the land. He is the keeper of the me, the divine laws.
Enki sails for the Kur, presumably to rescue Ereshkigal after she was given over to Kur. He is assailed by creatures with stones. These creatures may have been an extension of Kur itself. He takes his boat to Nippur to have the city blessed by Enlil.
He throws a feast for the gods, giving Enlil, An, and Nintu spacial attention. After the feast, Enlil proclaims that the Anunnaki should praise Enki. From there, he guards the me and imparts them on the people.
He directs the me towards Ur and Meluhha and Dilmun, organizing the world with his decrees. He sires the goddess Ninsar upon Ninhursag, then sires Ninkur upon Ninsar, finally siring Uttu, goddess of plants, upon Ninkur.
Uttu bore eight new types of trees from Enki. He then consumed these tree-children and was cursed by Ninhursag, with one wound for each plant consumed. Enlil and a fox act on Enki's behalf to call back Ninhursag in order to undo the damage. She joins with Enki again and bears eight new children, one to cure each of the wounds.
The Creation of Man" The gods complain that they need assistance. At his mother Nammu's prompting, he directs her, along with some constructive criticism from Ninmah Ninhursagin the creation of man from the heart of the clay over the Abzu. Several flawed versions were created before the final version was made. They gave her the Food of Life and the Water of Life, which restored her. In a different text, she gets Enki drunk and he grants her more powers, arts, crafts, and attributes - a total of ninety-four me.
Inanna parts company with Enki to deliver the me to her cult center at Erech. Enki recovers his wits and tries to recover the me from her, but she arrives safely in Erech with them. A group of seven "decreed the fates" - these probably included the first four, as well as Nanna, his son Utu, the sun god and a god of justice, and Nanna's daughter Inanna, goddess of love and war. He travels across the sky in his gufa, a small, canoe-like boat made of woven twigs and tarwith the stars and planets about him.
Which statement shows how the Sumerian religion and government were connected?
Nanna was the tutelary deity of Ur appointed as king of that city by An and Enlil. He journeyed to Nippur by boat, stopping at five cities along the way.
When he arrived at Nippur, he proffered gifts to Enlil and pleaded with him to ensure that his city of Ur would be blessed, prosperous, and thus, not be flooded. Nanna was married to Ningal and they produced Inanna and Utu. He rests in the Underworld every month, and there decrees the fate of the dead.
He refuses to send aid to Inanna when she is trapped in the underworld. He established Ur-Nammu as his mortal representative, establishing the third Ur dynasty. He goes to the underworld at the end of every day setting in the "mountain of the west" and rising in the "mountain of the east".
While there decrees the fate of the dead, although he also may lie down to sleep at night. He is usually depicted with fiery rays coming out of his shoulders and upper arms, and carrying a saw knife.
When Inanna's huluppu tree is infested with unwelcome guests, he ignores her appeal for aid. He tries to set her up with Dumuzi, the shepherd, but she initially rebuffs him, preferring the farmer. He aided Dumuzi in his flight from the galla demons by helping him to transform into different creatures. Through Enki's orders, he also brings water up from the earth in order to irrigate Dilmun, the garden paradise, the place where the sun rises.
He is in charge of the "Land of the Living" and, in sympathy for Gilgamesh, calls off the seven weather heroes who defend that land. He opened the "ablal" of the Underworld for the shade of Enkidu, to allow him to escape, at the behest of Enki. Inanna Nanna and Ningal's daughter Inanna, goddess of love and war. Inanna appeals to Utu about her unwelcome guests, but he is unsympathetic. She appeals to Gilgamesh, here her brother, and he is receptive. He tears down the tree and makes it into a throne and bed for her.
In return for the favor, Inanna manufactures a pukku and mikku for him. When he spurns her she sends the Bull of Heaven to terrorize his city of Erech. He assures her that his parents are as good as hers and she begins to desire him. Her mother, Ningal, further assures her. The two consummate their relationship and with their exercise in fertility, the plants and grains grow as well.
After they spend time in the marriage bed, Inanna declares herself as his battle leader and sets his duties as including sitting on the throne and guiding the path of weapons. At Ninshubur's request, she gives him power over the fertility of plants and animals. She sets out to witness the funeral rites of her sister-in-law Ereshkigal's husband Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven.
She takes precaution before setting out, by telling her servant Ninshubur to seek assistance from Enlil, Nanna, or Enki at their shrines, should she not return. Inanna knocks on the outer gates of Kur and the gatekeeper, Neti, questions her. He consults with queen Ereshkigal and then allows Inanna to pass through the seven gates of the underworld. After each gate, she is required to remove adornments and articles of clothing, until after the seventh gate, she is naked.
The Annuna pass judgment against her and Ereshkigal killed her and hung her on the wall. Inanna is rescued by the intervention of Enki. He creates two sexless creatures that empathize with Ereshkigal's suffering, and thereby gain a gift - Inanna's corpse. They restore her to life with the Bread of Life and the Water of Life, but the Sumerian underworld has a conservation of death law.
No one can leave without providing someone to stay in their stead. She doesn't allow them to claim anyone until she sees Dumuzi on his throne in Uruk.
They then seize Dumuzi, but he escapes them twice by transforming himself, with the aid of Utu. Eventually he is caught and slain.
Inanna spies his sister, Geshtinanna, in mourning and they go to Dumuzi. She allows Dumuzi, the shepherd, to stay in the underworld only six months of the year, while Geshtinanna will stay the other six. As with the Greek story of the kidnapping of Persephone, this linked the changing seasons, the emergence of the plants from the ground, with the return of a harvest deity from the nether world.
Geshtinanna is also associated with growth, but where her brother rules over the spring harvested grain, she rules over the autumn harvested vines "Inanna and Mount Ebih" Inanna complains to An about Mount Ebih Kur? An discourages her from doing so because of its fearsome power. She does so anyway, bringing a storehouse worth of weapons to bear on it. Because she is known as the Destroyer of Kur in certain hymns, Kramer identifys Mt. Enki became the keeper of the me. Inanna comes to Enki and complains at having been given too little power from his decrees.
The Annuna Anunnaki and others At the next level were fifty "great gods", possibly the same as the Annuna, although several gods confined to the underworld are specifically designated Annuna, An's children. The Annuna are also said to live in Dulkug or Du-ku, the "holy mound.
In the "Descent of Inanna to the Nether World" the Anunnaki are identified as the seven judges of the nether world. Ereshkigal Ereshkigal is the queen of the underworld, who is either given to Kur in the underworld or given dominion over the underworld in the prelude to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld".The Dawn of Religion : Documentary on the First Beliefs of Ancient Peoples (Full Documentary)
She has a palace there with seven gates and is due a visit by those entering Kur. She was married to Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, and is Inanna's older sister. When Inanna trespassed on her domain, Ereshkigal first directs her gatekeeper to open the seven gates a crack and remove her garments. Then when Inanna arrives she: She spoke against her the word of wrath. She uttered against her the cry of guilt She struck her.
Inanna was turned into a corpse, And was hung from a hook on the wall. Later, when Enki's messengers arrive, she is moaning in pain. When they empathize with her, she grants them a boon. They request Inanna's corpse and she accedes. Nergal Meslamtaea Nergal is the second son of Enlil and Ninlil. He holds Enkidu fast in the underworld after Enkidu broke several taboos while trying to recover Gilgamesh's pukku and mikku.