# Relationship between alpha and beta error statistics

### Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors

The probability of a Type I error is typically known as Alpha, while the a Type II error, according to Neil Weiss in Introductory Statistics. the relationships among power, sample size, effect size, and alpha for this discussion. In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis while a In practice, the difference between a false positive and false negative is usually not A test's probability of making a type I error is denoted by α. An Illustrative Guide to Statistical Power, Alpha, Beta, and Critical Values Type I Error is an event, and Alpha is the probability for that event's occurrence get me started on the misinterpretation of correlational relationships.

Hypothesis should be stated in advance The hypothesis must be stated in writing during the proposal state. The habit of post hoc hypothesis testing common among researchers is nothing but using third-degree methods on the data data dredgingto yield at least something significant. This leads to overrating the occasional chance associations in the study. The null hypothesis is the formal basis for testing statistical significance. By starting with the proposition that there is no association, statistical tests can estimate the probability that an observed association could be due to chance.

The proposition that there is an association — that patients with attempted suicides will report different tranquilizer habits from those of the controls — is called the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis cannot be tested directly; it is accepted by exclusion if the test of statistical significance rejects the null hypothesis.

One- and two-tailed alternative hypotheses A one-tailed or one-sided hypothesis specifies the direction of the association between the predictor and outcome variables. The prediction that patients of attempted suicides will have a higher rate of use of tranquilizers than control patients is a one-tailed hypothesis.

A two-tailed hypothesis states only that an association exists; it does not specify the direction. The prediction that patients with attempted suicides will have a different rate of tranquilizer use — either higher or lower than control patients — is a two-tailed hypothesis. The word tails refers to the tail ends of the statistical distribution such as the familiar bell-shaped normal curve that is used to test a hypothesis.

### What Is Power? | Statistics Teacher

One tail represents a positive effect or association; the other, a negative effect. A one-tailed hypothesis has the statistical advantage of permitting a smaller sample size as compared to that permissible by a two-tailed hypothesis. Unfortunately, one-tailed hypotheses are not always appropriate; in fact, some investigators believe that they should never be used. However, they are appropriate when only one direction for the association is important or biologically meaningful.

An example is the one-sided hypothesis that a drug has a greater frequency of side effects than a placebo; the possibility that the drug has fewer side effects than the placebo is not worth testing.

### Alpha and Beta Risks

Whatever strategy is used, it should be stated in advance; otherwise, it would lack statistical rigor. Data dredging after it has been collected and post hoc deciding to change over to one-tailed hypothesis testing to reduce the sample size and P value are indicative of lack of scientific integrity.

Because the investigator cannot study all people who are at risk, he must test the hypothesis in a sample of that target population. No matter how many data a researcher collects, he can never absolutely prove or disprove his hypothesis. There will always be a need to draw inferences about phenomena in the population from events observed in the sample Hulley et al.

The absolute truth whether the defendant committed the crime cannot be determined. Instead, the judge begins by presuming innocence — the defendant did not commit the crime. The judge must decide whether there is sufficient evidence to reject the presumed innocence of the defendant; the standard is known as beyond a reasonable doubt.

## Alpha and Beta Risks

A judge can err, however, by convicting a defendant who is innocent, or by failing to convict one who is actually guilty. In similar fashion, the investigator starts by presuming the null hypothesis, or no association between the predictor and outcome variables in the population.

Beta is commonly set at 0. Consequently, power may be as low as 0. Powers lower than 0.

Bullard also states there are the following four primary factors affecting power: Significance level or alpha Variability, or variance, in the measured response variable Magnitude of the effect of the variable The relationship between these variables can be shown in the following proportionality equation: Power is increased when a researcher increases sample size, as well as when a researcher selects stronger effect sizes and significance levels.

Also, specific formulas change depending on the statistical test performed—a topic for more advanced study. In terms of significance level and power, Weiss says this means we want a small significance level close to 0 and a large power close to 1.

Having stated a little bit about the concept of power, the authors have found it is most important for students to understand the importance of power as related to sample size when analyzing a study or research article versus actually calculating power. We have found students generally understand the concepts of sampling, study design, and basic statistical tests, but sometimes struggle with the importance of power and necessary sample size.

Therefore, the chart in Figure 1 is a tool that can be useful when introducing the concept of power to an audience learning statistics or needing to further its understanding of research methodology.

## Type I and type II errors

A tool that can be useful when introducing the concept of power to an audience learning statistics or needing to further its understanding of research methodology This concept is important for teachers to develop in their own understanding of statistics, as well.

This tool can help a student critically analyze whether the research study or article they are reading and interpreting has acceptable power and sample size to minimize error. Rather than concentrate on only the p-value result, which has so often traditionally been the focus, this chart and the examples below help students understand how to look at power, sample size, and effect size in conjunction with p-value when analyzing results of a study.

We encourage the use of this chart in helping your students understand and interpret results as they study various research studies or methodologies.

Examples for Application of the Chart Imagine six fictitious example studies that each examine whether a new app called StatMaster can help students learn statistical concepts better than traditional methods. Each of the six studies were run with high-school students, comparing the morning AP Statistics class 35 students that incorporated the StatMaster app to the afternoon AP Statistics class 35 students that did not use the StatMaster app. The outcome of each of these studies was the comparison of mean test scores between the morning and afternoon classes at the end of the semester.

Statistical information and the fictitious results are shown for each study A—F in Figure 2, with the key information shown in bold italics.

Examples of type I errors include a test that shows a patient to have a disease when in fact the patient does not have the disease, a fire alarm going on indicating a fire when in fact there is no fire, or an experiment indicating that a medical treatment should cure a disease when in fact it does not. Examples of type II errors would be a blood test failing to detect the disease it was designed to detect, in a patient who really has the disease; a fire breaking out and the fire alarm does not ring; or a clinical trial of a medical treatment failing to show that the treatment works when really it does.

Thus a type I error is a false positive, and a type II error is a false negative. When comparing two means, concluding the means were different when in reality they were not different would be a Type I error; concluding the means were not different when in reality they were different would be a Type II error. Various extensions have been suggested as " Type III errors ", though none have wide use.

In practice, the difference between a false positive and false negative is usually not obvious, since all statistical hypothesis tests have a probability of making type I and type II errors. These error rates are traded off against each other: For a given test, the only way to reduce both error rates is to increase the sample size, and this may not be feasible.

A test statistic is robust if the Type I error rate is controlled.