Architecture, History: Evolution of Building Design
Even though much of Greek art was meant to honor the gods, those very gods were Therefore, art and architecture were a tremendous source of pride for Early Greek statues called kouros were rigid and stood up straight. Over time, Greek statuary adopted a more natural, relaxed pose with hips Report broken link. It was once thought that architecture, sculpture, and painting No doubt this topic will produce fascinating coffee-table books in times to come, In my opinion the relationship between art and architecture is very DANGEOURUS: the irony in getting a first look at the design by Saha Hadid Architects for. The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes. The oldest human art that has been found dates to the Stone Age, when the first The Mesolithic has different time spans in different parts of Eurasia. .. The relationship between Altyn-Depe and the Indus Valley seems to have.
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Relief sculpture was developed in wood and stone. Sculpture depicted religious, military, and hunting scenes, including both human and animal figures. In the Sumerian period, small statues of people were produced. These statues had an angular form and were produced from colored stone. The figures typically had bald head with hands folded on the chest. In the Akkadian period, statues depicted figures with long hair and beards, such as the stele of Naram-Sin.
In the Amorite period or Neosumerianstatues represented kings from Gudea of Lagashwith their mantle and a turban on their heads and their hands on their chests. During Babylonian rule, the stele of Hammurabi was important, as it depicted the great king Hammurabi above a written copy of the laws that he introduced.
ART TO ARCHITECTURE
Assyrian sculpture is notable for its anthropomorphism of cattle and the winged geniewhich is depicted flying in many reliefs depicting war and hunting scenes, such as in the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. Ancient Egyptian art Mask of Tutankhamun ; c. The mummy mask of Tutankhamun is perhaps the most iconic object to survive from ancient Egypt One of the first great civilizations arose in Egyptwhich had elaborate and complex works of art produced by professional artists and craftspeople.
Egypt's art was religious and symbolic. Given that the culture had a highly centralized power structure and hierarchy, a great deal of art was created to honour the pharaohincluding great monuments. Egyptian art and culture emphasized the religious concept of immortality. Later Egyptian art includes Coptic and Byzantine art.
The architecture is characterized by monumental structures, built with large stone blocks, lintels, and solid columns. Methodologies[ edit ] Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the ontology and history of objects. Art historians often examine work in the context of its time.
At best, this is done in a manner which respects its creator's motivations and imperatives; with consideration of the desires and prejudices of its patrons and sponsors; with a comparative analysis of themes and approaches of the creator's colleagues and teachers; and with consideration of iconography and symbolism.
In short, this approach examines the work of art in the context of the world within which it was created. Art historians also often examine work through an analysis of form; that is, the creator's use of lineshapecolortextureand composition. This approach examines how the artist uses a two-dimensional picture plane or the three dimensions of sculptural or architectural space to create his or her art.
The way these individual elements are employed results in representational or non-representational art. Is the artist imitating an object or image found in nature? If so, it is representational. The closer the art hews to perfect imitation, the more the art is realistic. Is the artist not imitating, but instead relying on symbolism, or in an important way striving to capture nature's essence, rather than copy it directly? If so the art is non-representational—also called abstract.
Realism and abstraction exist on a continuum. Impressionism is an example of a representational style that was not directly imitative, but strove to create an "impression" of nature.
Art and Architecture [ddttrh.info]
If the work is not representational and is an expression of the artist's feelings, longings and aspirations, or is a search for ideals of beauty and form, the work is non-representational or a work of expressionism. An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs. In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic, and aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object.
Many art historians use critical theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward. Critical theory in art history is often borrowed from literary scholarsand it involves the application of a non-artistic analytical framework to the study of art objects. FeministMarxistcritical racequeerand postcolonial theories are all well established in the discipline.
As in literary studies, there is an interest among scholars in nature and the environment, but the direction that this will take in the discipline has yet to be determined. More recently, media and digital technology introduced possibilities of visual, spatial and experiential analyses. The relevant forms vary from movies, to interactive forms, including virtual environments, augmented environments, situated media, networked media, etc.
The methods enabled by such techniques are in active development and promise to include qualitative approaches that can emphasize narrative, dramatic, emotional and ludic characteristics of history and art.
ADconcerning the development of Greek sculpture and painting. Passages about techniques used by the painter Apelles c. Similar, though independent, developments occurred in the 6th century China, where a canon of worthy artists was established by writers in the scholar-official class.
These writers, being necessarily proficient in calligraphy, were artists themselves. His was a personal and a historical account, featuring biographies of individual Italian artists, many of whom were his contemporaries and personal acquaintances. The most renowned of these was Michelangeloand Vasari's account is enlightening, though biased[ citation needed ] in places. Vasari's ideas about art were enormously influential, and served as a model for many, including in the north of Europe Karel van Mander 's Schilder-boeck and Joachim von Sandrart 's Teutsche Akademie.
Winckelmann's writings thus were the beginnings of art criticism. Jacob Burckhardt —one of the founders of art history, noted that Winckelmann was 'the first to distinguish between the periods of ancient art and to link the history of style with world history'. From Winckelmann until the midth century, the field of art history was dominated by German-speaking academics.
Winckelmann's work thus marked the entry of art history into the high-philosophical discourse of German culture.
History of art - Wikipedia
The emergence of art as a major subject of philosophical speculation was solidified by the appearance of Immanuel Kant 's Critique of Judgment inand was furthered by Hegel 's Lectures on Aesthetics.
Hegel's philosophy served as the direct inspiration for Karl Schnaase 's work. Schnaase's survey was published contemporaneously with a similar work by Franz Theodor Kugler.
A number of students went on to distinguished careers in art history, including Jakob Rosenberg and Frida Schottmuller. He introduced a scientific approach to the history of art, focusing on three concepts. Firstly, he attempted to study art using psychology, particularly by applying the work of Wilhelm Wundt. He argued, among other things, that art and architecture are good if they resemble the human body. Secondly, he introduced the idea of studying art through comparison.
By comparing individual paintings to each other, he was able to make distinctions of style. His book Renaissance and Baroque developed this idea, and was the first to show how these stylistic periods differed from one another. In fact he proposed the creation of an "art history without names. He was particularly interested in whether there was an inherently "Italian" and an inherently " German " style.
Riegl, Wickhoff, and the Vienna School[ edit ] Main article: The first generation of the Vienna School was dominated by Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoffboth students of Moritz Thausingand was characterized by a tendency to reassess neglected or disparaged periods in the history of art. Riegl and Wickhoff both wrote extensively on the art of late antiquitywhich before them had been considered as a period of decline from the classical ideal.
Riegl also contributed to the revaluation of the Baroque. A number of the most important twentieth-century art historians, including Ernst Gombrichreceived their degrees at Vienna at this time. These scholars began in the s to return to the work of the first generation, particularly to Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen, and attempted to develop it into a full-blown art-historical methodology.
Sedlmayr, in particular, rejected the minute study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches grounded in historical context, preferring instead to concentrate on the aesthetic qualities of a work of art. As a result, the Second Vienna School gained a reputation for unrestrained and irresponsible formalismand was furthermore colored by Sedlmayr's overt racism and membership in the Nazi party.
Panofsky and iconography[ edit ] Photographer unknown, Aby Warburg c. Together they developed much of the vocabulary that continues to be used in the 21st century by art historians. Today art historians sometimes use these terms interchangeably. Panofsky, in his early work, also developed the theories of Riegl, but became eventually more preoccupied with iconography, and in particular with the transmission of themes related to classical antiquity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
In this respect his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg devoted to the study of the classical tradition in later art and culture.
Why there's no art without architecture
Under Saxl's auspices, this library was developed into a research institute, affiliated with the University of Hamburgwhere Panofsky taught. Warburg died inand in the s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg.
Saxl settled in London, bringing Warburg's library with him and establishing the Warburg Institute. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the s.
These scholars were largely responsible for establishing art history as a legitimate field of study in the English-speaking world, and the influence of Panofsky's methodology, in particular, determined the course of American art history for a generation.
Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinciin which he used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual.
Group photo in front of Clark University. One of the best-known psychoanalytic scholars is Laurie Schneider Adams, who wrote a popular textbook, Art Across Time, and a book Art and Psychoanalysis. An unsuspecting turn for the history of art criticism came in when Sigmund Freud published a psychoanalytical interpretation of Michelangelo's Moses titled Der Moses des Michelangelo as one of the first psychology based analyses on a work of art.
For unknown purposes, Freud originally published the article anonymously.Art I: Medieval 500–1400, with Rick Steves
Jung and archetypes[ edit ] Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. Jung was a Swiss psychiatristan influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreamsart, mythologyworld religion and philosophy.
Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemyastrologysociologyas well as literature and the arts.
His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetypethe collective unconsciousand his theory of synchronicity. Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic.