Portal:Contents/Culture and the arts - Wikipedia
history of the relationship between literature and art, manifesting variously where . a meeting place for issues of visual and material culture, textuality, and. The relationship between culture, language and literature cannot be shows itself in everything-language, literature, performing arts, verbal and non-verbal. Books, plays, novels, and every piece of art that defines special society 4 3 The . Relationship Between Literature and Culture For centuries, people have.
Literature and culture Definition Literature in this context refers to foreign language literature. As a starting point it can be defined as written texts with artistic value, including the traditional literary genres of poems, fiction and drama.
Literature should also be understood as a social and communicative system. This wide concept allows for a much more empirical description of actions that are being performed in the field of literature, the main four sectors being production, distribution, reception and processing of literary texts and other literary products.
It serves as a basis to understand literature as a set of more or less social activities that mostly can be learned and fostered as literary competences. Culture is a wider concept than literature, so in this context it will be considered in terms of its relationship with literature, i.
Thus in the teaching of culture literature plays different roles: A literary text provides students with a clear idea about the syntactic structure of a written text and how far the written language differs and shapes from the spoken one. By getting used of the sentence function, the structure of a paragraph, and the section or a chapter, their writing skill develops and their speech skill acquires fluency. For sure, students expand their vocabulary and grammar base by being exposed and attached to a literary text.
In an efferent reading, the literary text provides a diversity of information regarding the geographical location of the portrayed culture. Students, while reading get an idea about the story and its historical background and even the way of life that took place at that time. So they develop insight into the country that speaks the target language they are learning. Moreover, an efferent reading emphasizes on the descriptions of architecture, weather, dress, decoration, customs and traditions, and other things, in which it helps the learners to enhance vocabulary, language, and a cultural insight.
This approach, however, presents two major disadvantages. First, an efferent reading keeps the students alienated and separated from the text and language, as it prevents what Robert Scholes described as an active environment of creative experimentation at a personal and collective level Second, cultural insight is very superficial according to the nature of the efferent reading, since readers only follow the steps provided by the text itself, so missing the intertextual references and sources that are provided by the literary work.
Well, in order to avoid this lack in the classroom, the efferent reading must be connected and must have a relationship, and even supported by the virtues that are 15Translated. Another institutional perspective, in the efferent reading the text is viewed as a finished and closed object that a student can only contemplate passively from the perspective established by the teacher.
An aesthetic reading helps the students make connection between the culture implied in the literary text that they are dealing with and their own cultural context, and make them recognize the influence that occurred to their identity due to the literary work and the target language.
Claire Kramsch argues that it is vital to be aware that culture in language learning is not an expendable fifth skill; it is present within the four language skills writing, speaking, listening, and reading. She focuses on the role of context and the circumstances about the right and the accurate use of language. Teaching culture means therefore teaching not only how things are and have been, but how they could have been or how else they could be. Neither history nor ethnography provide this imaginative leap that will enable learners to imagine cultures different from their own […] culture is arbitrary, which doesn't mean it is gratuitous, only that different events could have been recorded if other people had had the power to record them, different patterns could have been identified, these patterns in turn could have been differently enunciated; which is why culture, in order to be legitimate, has always had to justify itself and cloak its laws in the mantle of what is "right and just" rather than appear in the naked power of its arbitrariness.
According to Dimitrios Thanasoulas, there exist two perspectives about culture teaching and that have influenced and served as a model for integrating it to language teaching: One pertains to the transmission of factual, cultural information, Which consists in statistical information, that is, institutional structures and other aspects of the target civilization, highbrow information, i.
All this perspective offers data unable to provoke a deep reflection in the class and that restricts teachers and students to a mere awareness of the way of life of the country where the information has been taken from, just like an efferent reading. According to him, the boundaries of this approach are that it shall only give learners cultural knowledge and it is up to them to integrate it with the assumptions, beliefs, values and traditions of their own society. However, at this point the role of the teacher can make a difference.
As in an aesthetic reading, the teacher needs to guide the students so that they can build their own interpretation using their own experience, by their use of critical thinking and then comparing and contrasting the two different cultures.
This can be viewed as an international cultural communication or called as an intercultural communication, just what Byram emphasized on. According to Michael Byram, the process of intercultural communication is a function of the skills that are brought by the student to the interaction and to the field. These skills can be divided into two categories: While the second is called Skills of discovery and interaction.
This basically is about the discovery of new data and the interaction with other speakers.
Most generally these skills are gathered in the same category because most of the times the skills of discovery come with the skills of interaction. However, in some cases and circumstances Skills of discovery can be treated separately and independently from skills of interaction. At the end, the role of culture in ELT is considered as vital and crucial, since it means the difference between occasional speakers who remain outsiders and speakers who understand the meaning behind the words and the world that is constructed by them.
As Samovar, Porter, and Jain observe: Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who talks to whom, about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people encode messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and circumstances under which various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted But not everyone truly thinks why that is.
The importance of teaching literature lies in its ability to make students acquire many abilities and talents; in encouraging their critical reading, growing analytical thinking, building valuable skills and raising the students' view to the whole worlds.
Connection Between Culture and Literature | Walid Habbar - ddttrh.info
Nowadays, the importance of teaching literature in classrooms is sometimes and somehow questioned. For instance anybody can wonder why bother students read stories and spend their time reading books about events that are not even true or real instead of just teaching them what they need to learn and push them to the world.
Surely, such questions may seem ridiculous to many educators and scholars.
Without any doubt literature is important, and for this it plays a crucial and a central place in the curriculum. Cultural Value 18 For further information.
Portal:Contents/Culture and the arts
Undisputedly, cultures were built on stories, tales, histories, myths, legends, religious stories and so on.
Before the students understand and participate in the culture in which they belong and even grasp it, they first are invited to read about the stories that consist many cultural aspects and hide plenty of cultural contexts within them.
Hence, the ultimate goal behind teaching and educating literature is to expose and show them ideas from other cultures, and to teach them and give them illustrations about histories and peoples of other times and places because literature is considered as an idealistic way to do this.
Through this experience they learn what it was like to live in that time period, and how the people talked and thought and acted. This shall make them experience more events and live them inside their minds, thus they will acquire the ability and the desire of knowing more, and even they will find themselves eager to go beyond the limits and the boundaries in order to feed their greediness.
Vocabulary Building and Enhancing Having a large amount of vocabulary is vital for several reasons. It enhances both writing and reading abilities, but it also push the way for certain complex discourse. Because the larger your vocabulary range is, the more deep discussions and important topics you face and both inside and outside of the classroom. Furthermore, in their speech, people tend to use a limited range of vocabulary, so the best way to become exposed to new words is to read more and more.
Thus, reading and tackling literature is considered as important due to its necessity to construct and enhance vocabulary. Because any novel automatically contains diversity of words that students almost never seen or heard before, and through this they will acquire them and grasp their meanings and add them to their dictionary. Enhancing Writing Skills Writing skills is one of the toughest skills in the language because it requires more than linking words and sentences together, it needs a high level of grammar and vocabulary and a professional mind to master the rules and apply them.
However, the best way to become a good writer is through reading. When you read you are being deep inside the language.
Students who tend to read seem to have more knowledge of how language works, and consequently they will have an advantage when they start to write a piece of writing. As can be seen, literature serves as valuable teachers where it teach students how to use a previous written language to make a new own one in order to improve their writing skills and communicate with the world.
Growing Critical Thinking Education make the students a critical and a communicative part due to its means and tools to make them valuable elements in the society, and one of these tools is the ability to think critically through analyzing and criticizing everything around them. Literature as a part of education serves this goal as well as many novels encourage critical thinking and require an analytical way of thinking in order to understand and grasp the hidden meaning within them, that is why teachers tend to select such novels to be taught in the classroom in order to grow the critical thinking of their students and make them a critical minds in the society because literature promote this kind of activity where it teaches the students how to read a passage and then it makes him wonder how and why it was written like that and in this way.
Building Reading Skills Students must practice reading regularly to build and enhance their reading skills, because reading literature provides another path for this simple practice.
Particularly during early-reading instruction, teachers who read literature in their class often aim to help students hone these all-important skills. Create Connections Reading literature is not just learning about the literary works themselves, but also about learning how the world works and runs. In a word, through the discovering of literature, students can immerse themselves in the world more than any they have seen before, because literature provides multiplicity of benefits for them, through conveying cultural context, building their grammatical rules, enhancing their critical thinking, blending them in the world and connecting them with societies.
That is why the teaching of literature in the EFL classes is considered as a high priority and with vital necessity. L Programs Literature was at first the principle vein of info for guiding in dialect classes in the period of Grammar Translation Technique. Yet from that point forward it has been dropped down the platform. Actually with the appearance of structuralism and audio-lingual system, literature has been minimized and thusly dropped to the margin.
Collie and Slater,p. Likewise in the period of Communicative Language Teaching, literature was ignored and more consideration was given to dialogs and discussions which were more functional and unmistakable in this present reality circumstance. Maley contends that this state of mind toward literature is because of a lack of observational examination affirming the criticalness of abstract data for dialect classes.
Maley asserts that what exists as of now as observational examination on composing and tongue instructing are certain to movement research in little balances. Taking regard of every one of these disapprovals, amidst the s a few professionals and dialect researchers revived literature as a dialect learning material after a long extent of being disregarded. This can be affirmed by seeing such a variety of distributions proclaiming the returning of literature in dialect classes Maley, Moreover, connected etymology filled the arrival of literature for dialect instructing.
Publications which laid the red carpet for the arrival of literature were productive right now including: What follows is a brief outline of what we can say the benefits and merits of literature in ESL. Authenticity Literature is inherently authentic and provides authentic input for language learning Ghosn, ; Shrestha, According to Maley literature manages non-trivial and serious things which are relevant. Authenticity is viewed as very important in the literature in the ESL classes which naturally exist in the literary texts.
In drama for instance, authenticity can be seen in conversations, dialogues, feelings and expressions that take place between the participants. Motivations Literary texts provide motivation for their authenticity and the meaningful context that they offer to learners. Literature handles things that are fascinating in nature and incorporates little of any uninteresting things Maley, a. Motivation is one of the elements which guide learner to process. Motivation can be achieved if learners are exposed to what they really want and what they really find their enjoyment in.
Studies revealed that students find their motivation and feel enjoyed when they are exposed to literary texts for learning purposes.
Cultural Awareness Literature was and still providing cultural and intercultural awareness Van, especially in the era of imperialism, industrialization and globalization. Literature deals with universal concepts such as love, hatred, death, nature, traditions, values and other elements that are common to all languages and cultures, where the difference, similarity, and even the relationship between cultures and languages can expand our understanding for life and enrich our vision to the whole world.
Learners can be given a week just to experience a novel without broad use of word reference or dictionary. A test like this shall increase their reading speed and help them improving their meaning guessing in reading any literary text. Consequently students will learn and get used of how to read a lot in a short period of time.
On the other hand, poetry can be the suitable literary genre for intensive reading, because poetry requires deep and close analysis. Thus, the students are invited to read carefully and dig for hidden meanings in each stanza of a particular poem such as allegories and metaphors in order to grasp the real meaning of that literary text. Enhancing Language Skills Similarly with the standards of CLT19 Van,literature is rich of many unlimited genres that can help in the development of the language four skills: For writing purposes, literature provides a good floor for the practicing of writing.
For instance, us as Master students that literature is our field of study, having complete a short story or a poem is very encouraging because we can make the end of the story in our own words or even narrate it with a different point of 19 Abb: Communicative Language Teaching view according to our understanding and critical thinking, and this is a similar activity for practicing writing fluently.
For speaking purposes, many events and occasions that take place in a poem, a book, or a short story can be associated with our real life because many literary texts reveal and depict social issues in their context. This helps the learners to practice warm discussions about those raw topics in their foreign language classes. For listening purposes, students can be exposed to the audio extracts of stories and poems or novels. Even the musical elements in poetry help the learners to hear and focus on the rhythm and the intonation of native speakers that is provided within these literary genres, and this will help them to develop their listening ability and make them ready to indulge these new elements in their other skills.
For reading purposes, as it is mentioned before, novel and poetry provide vital opportunities for extensive and intensive reading, it help the students to practice their skills of scanning, skimming, and digging in texts in order to find new ideas.
In general, reading in literature is a combination of reading for enjoyment and reading for getting information. All in all, literature fills the lacks in non-literary texts. In matter of fact, it is not only helpful for language learning purposes in general, but it is useful also to accelerate language learning in content-based instruction Shang, One important implication is that a language cannot be taught without its corresponding culture.
The relevance of culture to FL learning is highly put in evidence when it comes to teaching literature. Literature can be studied for a better understanding of culture as may culture be studied for a better understanding of literature. An effective way to make foreign language literature accessible to learners is, thus, to introduce them to the culture in which this literature was conceived.
In most of them, the tale tells the story of King Suibhne or Sweeney in anglicised versionsa pagan king from Ulster who opposed the rise of Catholic power and was cursed by Saint Ronan Finn to wander aimlessly in the shape of an owl from tree to tree.
The life of Sweeney is imagined and re-imagined and Sweeney himself, as a character, is built and re-built. Irish poet Seamus Heaney expressed a particular interest in the story and its character and produced three different translations of Buile Suibhne inandthe last two of which were published under the respective titles Sweeney Astray: Their circumstances together with their works probably triggered a new vision of the political role of the poet not entirely foreign to the role of the fili in ancient Irelandand his or her central position in society.
Individual initiatives have also played an important part in the process.
- Literature and culture
The art magazine Circa, for instance, created inwas rather successful at implementing a policy seeking to look beyond the borders of Ireland so as to establish various dialogues between the arts and cultures of Northern Ireland, the Irish Republic and Great Britain, and also of Ireland and other countries in the world.
Without dismissing national concerns and preoccupations, Circa attempted to introduce its readers to new and even avant-garde theories, helped promote new art forms such as photography or comics and contributed to the circulation of new developments in the arts elsewhere in the world.
Literature and culture – ddttrh.info
More than ever before, Irish readers could be informed about what has become a global art scene with its influence on the critical discourse on art in Ireland. Thus by integrating new art forms and discourses into the magazine, the editors of Circa widely disseminated new ideas and initiated connections with other countries, expressing their belief in a fresh and renewed vision of Irish identity: The Thinker and Teacher, op.
Although well-known characters and symbols related to this crucial period of Irish history tend to appear in the foreground of the cartoons, backgrounds and horizon lines cannot be overlooked for they include rather well-defined details which serve a double purpose: One ideal pursued at the time by Parnell and his followers was of course Home Rule for Ireland and it is clear that Irish cartoonists and the Irish nationalist press were instrumental in keeping the aspirations of the Irish population high, suggesting that Home Rule for Ireland was not a mere flickering hope but a pending reality and a dream within reach.
It would put before us the thorny hand and cruel acts of the oppressor […] hurry the doubting to the battlefield it pictured, and inflame the heart of the fearless patriot with a gladdening prophecy.
This contrasted sharply with the economic depression, unemployment and emigration that had blighted the s, and enabled the country to catch up with Western Europe. In the s Ireland was faced with various political choices during the debates prior to and surrounding the general elections of Ireland chose the latter, giving up social democratic ideals. However field surveys reveal that primary schools and their teachers often lack clear instructions on how to take better account of ethnic and cultural diversity and promote interculturalism.
The lack of guidelines actually allows some forms of racism to emerge overshadowing the horizon line of multi-ethnic education. It is remarkable that drama, poetry, new critical discourse and historiography should dominate the contemporary scene, questioning thereby the psychological consequences — individually and collectively — of the changes occurring in Ireland. The past still weighs heavily on the new fabric of Irish society and the challenges of the modern era — democratisation, decolonisation, and lately globalisation — still have to be met.