Journal of Knowledge Management Practice,
When study ing ICT it is important to understand the difference between "data" and "information". This study note tells you what the differences are and. In, essence, data is raw. It has not been shaped, processed or interpreted. It is a series of 1's and zeros that humans would not be able to read. There is a subtle difference between data and information. act of informing, " usually in regard to education, instruction, or other knowledge communication.
The more the scientific and technological contents of the economic activities increase the more important the organizational and management progress becomes. Therefore, knowledge is essential in the current economy due to its contribution to productivity increase, to the formation and growth of new industries, and to the organizational changes necessary to apply that new knowledge effectively.Bandwidth and data rate of a channel, Data communication fundamentals, Bandwidth and data rate, ma
The increase in productivity in the productive sector would not be possible without a mediator mechanism through which that spread of knowledge on all the branches and sectors of the economic activity is produced. The ICT's have been that mediator mechanism. For scholars such as Lundvalland Steinmuellerand other evolutionists, the extensive incorporation of the ICT's into the economy and society assumes a radical change, the transition into a new stage of development.
The concept was accompanied by the term "key factor. This "key" factor exercises a decisive influence on the structure of the relative costs, capable of serving as spreading mechanism in all the economic system. Foray and Lundvall insist on the role of the knowledge based economic change: This theme has been particularly controversial, especially because of the Solow Paradox.
This paradox suggests that, despite the extensive use of the ICTs, these had not had a significant effect on productivity until the mid 90's. Since the mid 90's the works of the professor Erik Brynjolfsson from the Massachussets Institute ofTechnology MIT among other researchers offered information that led to the solution of the paradox and also offered an explanation of the reasons why they had not been able to find positive evidence until that moment of the relationship between the ICTs and the productivity Brynjolfsson, Authors such as Gordon did not consider those pieces of evidence convincing enough; the increase in productivity in the last decade of the past century in the North American economy were not generalized to all the economy; it was just concentrated on the productive sectors of informatics assets.
David has sustained that the institutional and the organizational adaptation period would always be long for a radically new technology. In addition to this, different studies have made clear that the positive effects of the ICTs demand a reform of the enterprise's organizational structure, creating the need of a an internal an external transformation that enables to extract all the benefits of such investment.
Regarding that, Ontiveros et al. By the same token, Lundvall in a research project into the Danish economy demonstrated that the enterprises that introduced ICT without combining them with the investment in employee training, without making changes in the direction, and without modifying the job organization, had a negative effect on the productivity growth that extended for several years Gjerding, These results were confirmed later in much more detail and with more precision by the Business and Industry Ministry of Denmark Business and Industry Ministry, Having the KBE as the context and the ICTs as "key factors" of the New Technical Economical Paradigm, the aforementioned issues confirm that the introduction of the ICTs as a competitive strategy in organizations needs to be accompanied by modifications of which one of the most outstanding is the reconfiguration of its OFs.
In the next section we will address the study of the main organizational forms that scholars recognize as the main structures that are designed by enterprises in order to implement the strategies previously selected by their administrators.
As Drucker has stated,the new era's organizations have witnessed the technology power, not only as a competitive capability, but also as an agent promoting profound changes in the OFs. According to Miles et al. The Strategy defines what will be done in an organization and the structure defines how it will be done. This is why Chandler proposes that the strategy be followed by the structure as in his study on Sears Roebuck, Standard Oil, Du Pont and General Motors found that, among other things, that a every strategy that was implemented in such enterprises created administrative problems due to a lack of an adequate structure to carry it out; and b the modification of the organizational structure enabled to manage the implementation of the strategy more effectively.
It is important to mention that the prevailing stability in the economic stages in the late XIX century and early XX century was characterized by long periods of stability and short periods of innovation, which are defined by Gates as "uninterruptedly constant instability p. Under this scenario, uncertainty is an important part of the system's performance. It acknowledges that the future is unpredictable; and therefore, the balance becomes conditioned by a complex environment.
This way the Organizational Forms correspond to the demands of their time and have evolved in three periods of time: In this period the job division fosters specialization.
This emphasizes theTime Economy; controls are exercised and imposed and big efforts are made in order to establish an efficient labor organization. Taylor, Fayol, and Weber contribute to what is called the classic management approach, in which "the most efficient and effective organizations had a hierarchical structure" Kikta,p.
The quality associated with competitiveness as a fundamental factor in the definition of NOF, challenges the concept of individual posts with simple and fragmented tasks; the need of redefining the organization's structure emerges, considering that, in order to attain this "there is no an optimal way of organizing; that is to say, any organization wanting to become effective will have to ensure the congruence among its structure, its internal processes and the specific circumstances or contingencies that characterize it" Morgan,pp.
The Industrial Organization,framed on the industrial economy, is at its very peak and the theoretical and empirical works published during that period Buzzell y Gale, ; Caves y Porter, ; Lamb ; Porter,;Schmalensee, ; confirms that the OFs were oriented towards linking the IT's effectiveness as a competitive advantage per se. However, these pieces of work failed to identify or recognize the value that the IT's management produced.
Up until now adaptation is a fundamental factor for the survival of a competitive market.
The key to understanding the intricate relationship between data, information, and knowledge lies at the source of data and information. The source of both is twofold: Both activities and situations generate information i. Examples of activities where information is generated and data can be collected include business activities like production, sales transactions, or advertising campaigns. Situations pertain to changes in the environment that may or may not be related to human activities, such as changes in the climate.
Changes in the climate would affect such human activities as agriculture, or other economic activities such as cargo shipping. A situation is a context that affects decisions. For example, the deterioration of a factory building may impact production.
In short, activities and situations generate information that feed into the decision-making process. Can a computer system have knowledge and be knowledgeable? Can a computer system have wisdom and be wise? How should these ideas and answers affect business and education? Data constitutes one of the primary forms of information.
It essentially consists of recordings of transactions or events which will be used for exchange between humans or even with machines. As such, data does not carry meaning unless one understands the context in which the data was gathered. A word, a number or a symbol can be used do describe a business result, inserted in a marriage contract or a graffiti on the wall.
It is the context which gives it meaning, and this meaning makes it informative. Information extends the concept of data in a broader context. As such it includes data but it also includes all the information a person comes in contact with as a member of a social organization in a given physical environment. Information like data, is carried through symbols. These symbols have complex structures and rules. Information therefore comes in a variety of forms such as writings, statements, statistics, diagrams or charts.
Some information theorists insist on the concept of form as the differentiating factor and the essence of information. Where does knowledge fit in this scenario?
Information becomes individual knowledge when it is accepted and retained by an individual as being a proper understanding of what is true Lehrer, and a valid interpretation of the reality. Conversely, organizational or social knowledge exists when it is accepted by a consensus of a group of people.
Common knowledge does not require necessarily to be shared by all members to exist, the fact that it is accepted amongst a group of informed persons can be considered a sufficient condition. The fact that it is readily available in writing or published material does not entail that everybody should be knowledgeable about it to meet the condition of being "common knowledge".
Godbout presents these definitions in an article discussing roles of computers in the field called "knowledge management. Educational Implications It appears that one of the issues in defining the terms data, information, knowledge, and wisdom is the role of understanding and meaning making. One can memorize data, and parrot it back.
Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom
One processes data organizes it into meaningful chunks? Parroting such chunks sounds more like being educated--but this can be done with little understanding or ability to make use of the information.
Knowledge is a step further on the scale. It involves understanding and ability to make use of the data and information to answer questions, solve problems, make decisions, and so on. Wisdom has to do with using one's knowledge in a responsible wise manner. In recent years, Robert Sternberg has taken the position that wisdom can and should be taught in schools, even at the elementary school level.