# Relationship between electricity and magnetism

### The Relationship Between Electricity & Magnetism by Aniketh Narayanan on Prezi

3) Electricity and magnetism are essentially two aspects of the same thing, because a changing electric field creates a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic. Apr 24, Magnetism and electricity involve the attraction and repulsion between charged particles and the forces exerted by these charges. May 13, Electricity was discovered in the 's or 's by British scientist, Michael Faraday. Faraday was researching on the concept of magic.

According to him, if magnetic fields are changed through a loop of wire, then electric current will be produced within the wire. Relation between Magnetism and Electricity at Atomic Level There is a relationship between magnetism and electricity, as both use positive and negative forces.

Every atom consists of electrons which are negatively-charged particles, protons which are positively charged, and neutrally-charged neutrons.

Just because these two different charges exist in the atom, the phenomena of magnetism and electricity occurs.

Electricity, in its static form, is nothing but an imbalance of positive and negative charges. When an electron is moving round the nucleus, a loop of electric current is formed. This in turn, results in the formation of a magnetic field within the electrical loop. It is believed that this is the basis of the magnetic properties found in different types of materials.

### Relation between electricity and magnetism

Properties of Electric and Magnetic Fields Electric field is the area surrounding a charged particle, where if any other charged particle makes an entry, it will experience a force. Magnetic field is the area surrounding a magnet, where apparent magnetic influence can be found. These two fields are interrelated. Noted Scottish physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell derived some equations to explain the relationship between the properties of electric and magnetic fields, as well as their geometric relations involving the circuits.

The derivations of his equations are described as follows: Any change in an electric field would result in the formation of a magnetic field. On the other hand, changing magnetic fields would yield electric fields. When an electric field is constant, it does not produce magnetic fields. Similarly, a magnetic field with a constant value would never produce any electric field.

Magnetic monopoles do not have any existence. The forces between moving electric charges are much more complicated, and in fact, what we call a "magnetic field" is actually just the result of moving charges acting on each other. Static magnetic fields in materials such as iron are more-or-less caused by the motion of electrons within atoms. One can also use a magnet and some loops of wire to demonstrate the reverse of the above: This is called induction.

By simply moving a magnet through a coil of wire, one can easily detect the current flowing in the coil by using a sensitive ammeter. But if the magnet is held still inside the loop, nothing will happen. Only a changing read: Likewise, only moving charges currents give rise to magnetic fields. Unmoving charges produce only the Coulomb force.

Quicktime movie of electromagnetic induction The simple demonstrations outlined above are very similar to their industrial counterparts. An commercial electric generator is little more than a coil of wire which is rotated inside a circular arrangement of magnets.

## Understanding the Relationship Between Magnetism and Electricity

And an electric motor is little more than a current-carrying coil whose magnetic field is interacting with the field of a circular arrangement of magnets.

In other words, the only difference between a generator and a motor is whether you put in force to get out current, or put in current to get out force. The two types of devices are completely symmetric. If you turn the blade on an electric fan with your finger, then you have made it into an electric generator. I often demonstrate this fact in class with hand-held electric generators.

### Understanding the Relationship Between Magnetism and Electricity

By turning the crank on one generator, I can send enough current through a small lightbulb to make it light up. This proves it is a generator. But by connecting two identical generators to each other, I can also show that cranking the handle on one generator makes the handle on the other generator turn by itself, thus proving that the second generator is now acting as a motor.

In the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell derived a set of equations for electromagnetism which we today call Maxwell's equations.

He developed many other important equations besides these, but never mind. When physicists refer to Maxwell's equations, these are the ones they mean. While he was working on these equations, it occurred to Maxwell that if one could Similar to the way an oscillating magnetic field can induce an electric current. Then, the oscillating electric field would produce a magnetic field. And so on, in an endless cycle.

Maxwell was able to show that, if such a thing were to be created, the electric and magnetic fields would oscillate at right angles to each other one wave going up and down, the other going in and out and would travel together while shifting their energy back-and-forth as they constantly and dynamically regenerated each other.

## Magnetic Field Basics

In other words, you would have electric and magnetic fields existing by themselves, with no charges, no magnets, and no masses. Maxwell calculated that the speed of this wave would be: If we insert the values given earlier, we have: Which is the speed of light. Although this did not prove that light was the mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic wave couplet which Maxwell envisioned, it was certainly suggestive, and Maxwell did suggest that light was an electromagnetic wave.

Maxwell's picture of a light wave is illustrated below. Maxwell died rather young, at the age of 48, and it was left to others to extend his work.

Throughout the 's and 's his equations were applied to a number of problems in electromagnetism mostly by British physicists, because Maxwell's work did not really catch on outside the British Isles until It gradually became clear to a number of people that Maxwell's equations predicted that electromagnetic waves should always be produced any time you had electric charges under acceleration.

In rough terms, accelerating charges always "shed" electromagnetic waves more-or-less like a speedboat sheds water waves. Did this mean that ordinary electric circuits were giving off invisible waves as the electricity moved around? According to Maxwell, it seemed that they ought to be.

To make a long story short, a few people did begin looking for invisible waves, and in the German physicist Heinrich Hertz one of the few German physicists who thought maybe Maxwell had something here discovered radio waves. This created quite a sensation, and from that point onward Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism was established as the best one. This property of moving charges is why the airlines usually request that you turn off stereos and so forth during takeoffs and landings.

If it uses electricity, then it produces radio noise at some level, and that is that. This can interfere with air navigation. I sometimes overhear fellow passengers grumbling that it's silly, their portable CD player isn't a radio so what's the problem Electromagnetic waves form an entire spectrum, as seen in the figure at right. Back to our story.