Although the Industrial Revolution and nationalism shaped European society in the nineteenth century, age of Old Imperialism, European nations established colonies in the .. In at the Football Association Cup finals at the Crystal Palace Stadium in England, of the ancient Olympic games among countries. In this lesson, you'll explore the history of American imperialism and discover how had a major impact on Africa and Europe's relationship with the continent. . is a collection of games and activities to teach students about Imperialism. There are two main ways in which the Industrial Revolution and imperialism were linked to one another. First, the Industrial Revolution made imperialism more.
In an attempt to dismantle the ideas embraced by the Old Regime, French revolutionaries inspired by the American Revolution only a few years prior attacked the social and political ideals of their time in favor of measures that ostensibly favored universal equality and liberty for all. This aspect is important to consider, as it helps explain the inconsistencies between Eastern and Western Europe in regard to the revolutions each country experienced.
Western powers with a closer proximity to France, experienced revolution far sooner than the countries of Eastern Europe since their populations existed within the boundaries of French influence.
This influence was further enhanced once Napoleon gained control over Italy, the German states, and portions of Austria-Hungary through his conquests.
The Causes and Motivations for the Scramble for Africa
As part of his rule, Napoleon implemented tremendous changes within these countries, both economically and politically. Because the imperial structure set up by Napoleon destroyed the social and political elements of the Old Regime across Western Europe, Napoleon set the stage for future revolutionary developments within these countries that progressed more rapidly than in places such as Russia. Nationalism, which reflected ideas of extreme patriotism and pride, played a tremendous role in developing the revolutionary changes that occurred across Europe.
Nationalism provided individuals with an identity, and a connection with people of similar cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This is important to consider, since these sentiments did not vanish over time. This case is greatly illustrated by the German states during the middle years of the nineteenth-century.
For these reasons, Western Europe experienced upheavals of their political and social systems far sooner than the countries of the East.
These disruptions and encouragement of nationalist sentiment, consequently, aided in the development of revolutionary thoughts long before such ideas emerged in the East. Distance, in this sense, greatly explains the revolutionary incongruities that existed throughout Europe during the nineteenth-century.
Eastern countries remained far removed from the dissent fomenting in the West. Moreover, distance gave the Eastern rulers ample time to implement measures capable of stifling and muting future dissenters, thus, preventing revolutionary reactions within their own countries.
The Impact of Imperialism on the Region – Keys to Understanding the Middle East
Not surprisingly, such tactics and actions helped to greatly delay radical Western ideas from permeating the Russian empire. Similar to his conquests in the West, Napoleon inadvertently introduced concepts of the French Revolution to the vast forces he encountered.
Not only does it demonstrate why an unevenness of revolutions existed within Europe, but it also explains the root causes of nationalism and why nationalist sentiment spread beyond the French boundaries to impact European societies at large. The revolutionary and nationalist sentiments introduced by Napoleon, in turn, aided in the disruption of the balance of power across Europe, and directly resulted in the tense military and political atmosphere that emerged following the Congress of Vienna in Political and institutional changes, however, are not the only revolutions that took place across Europe.
Industrialization, to a large degree, brought economic change to Europe on a scale never before seen. Just as the political revolutions of Europe varied from country to country, so too did the forces of industrialization that favored particular social, economic, and political environments over others. But what factors contributed to its impact? This growth in population was important since it assisted in the development of cities and provided a consumer market to meet the large-scale production capabilities of industry.
Revolutions in transportation and technology, such as the railroad and steamboat, further aided the development of industrialization since they provided a means for consumer goods to be shipped in mass quantities quickly and cost-effectively, across long distances.
Similar to the political revolutions taking place across Europe, industrialization varied greatly across the European continent. In Great Britain, for instance, the effects of industrialization were, perhaps, most recognizable since the British Empire fostered an atmosphere conducive to industry and its effects.
With an empire that stretched the globe, Britain possessed a large and diverse population, as well as a vast consumer market that helped stimulate the production of mass quantities of goods. According to historian, Anna Clark, however, the Industrial Revolution also created as many problems as it solved in Great Britain. This is particularly true if the social impact of the revolution is taken into account. While the Industrial Revolution provided many individuals with jobs and an abundance of goods, Clark asserts that it also served to create social strife and gender inequality, and greatly expanded the divide between social classes Clark, Problems such as these greatly helped fuel the social and political revolutions taking place across Britain, and eventually Europe, at large.
The Impact of Imperialism on the Region
Consequently, the social strife created by industry resulted in many of the problems seen in the last half of the nineteenth-century, particularly within Russia and the eventual Soviet Union. Industrialization within France and Austria also provided similar effects, although not nearly as pronounced as the British example. According to Breunig, industrialization greatly aided in the modernization efforts within France.6 Minutes of Imperialism (Fan Video)
In regard to Austria, Norman Rich explains: Like the other continental countries, however, Austria faced material shortages and a smaller-scale consumer market that paled in comparison to Great Britain. Eastern Europe and Russia, in particular, did not experience the full effects of industrialization like Great Britain, France, and Austria until later into the nineteenth-century.
With its isolated position in Europe, Russia once again possessed a natural barrier to many of the changes sweeping across the continent. Many of the institutions and policies of Russian governance continued to reflect the absolutist ideals espoused by the Old Regime, even into the twentieth-century. Serfdom, which amounted to basic elements of slavery, continued unabated until the s in Russia. As a result of this dependence on agriculture and the labor of serfs, Russia did not begin its modernization and industrialization policies until the late nineteenth-century well after the industrial revolutions of Western Europe.
Fearful of encroachment and destruction by the hands of the Western powers, Russia sought to catch up to the industrialized and technologically advanced West only because its national interests were at stake. With the unification and militarization of Germany during the s and s, such fears do not appear erroneous, especially when the aggressiveness of German military policies are taken into account.
The failure of Russia to industrialize later, rather than sooner, created many problems for the Russian Empire as it attempted to transition too quickly from an agricultural-based society to industry. By diverting their attention away from agriculture too rapidly, the Russian Empire experienced social strife and economic problems that eventually led to its downfall, following World War I.
As seen, industrialization varied greatly between the powers of Europe since it required multiple factors for its success. Nevertheless, its effects greatly impacted the European continent in a profound manner through the tremendous innovations it inspired in both technology and production.
As a result, Europe advanced faster and more quickly than at any other time period in its history. More importantly, however, industrialization helped cultivate and contribute to the rising social and political strife originally inspired by the French Revolution.
Through its creation of imbalances in social class, gender, and wealth, industrialization helped set the stage for many of the social problems that existed in the latter part of the nineteenth-century that continued well into the twentieth-century as well. Source Imperialism Similar to the political, social, and industrial revolutions, discrepancies in the policies of imperialism varied across Europe as well.
The Causes and Motivations for the Scramble for Africa
Ostensibly, imperialism expanded and grew as a result of the European desire to spread Christianity to the so-called heathen societies of the world, and as a means to bring civilization to the undeveloped tribes and clans of the globe. As Mark Cocker asserts: Ferguson admits that certain institutionsdeveloped and established globally via European colonialism, must be internalized by countries worldwide attempting to gain equal footing in global affairs and financial systems.
In the Middle East, there have been varying degrees of interference by outside powers. Not all countries of the Middle East were colonized: Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Afghanistan remained sovereign. Algeria illustrates another end of the spectrum. Countries were at times defined in more independent terms, although they remained under the control of foreign government. The Sultanate of Egypt was one of those, a short-lived protectorate of the British Empire. A local king was placed in power, but the purpose was mainly to sever it from the Ottoman Empire during World War I L.
This was before the League of Nations and the Mandate System, which codified an international policy of gradual self-rule for colonized countries. This refers to their competition over territory between Russia and the Indian subcontinent. Russia was seeking access to a warm water port, while Britain was seeking access to its most valuable colony, India. The Middle East was the arena for this struggle.
The era of colonialism is often placed in the past, but for many colonized groups, its effects are ongoing.
Powerful countries continue to have the power to set the standards for participation in global economics and political affairs that less powerful countries must follow, however. Furthermore, indigenous groups in many Western countries continue to protest ongoing colonialism that affects their communities, as protests in the Middle East also often portray Western countries as imperialists. Imperial Dynamics Imperial dynamics refer to the relationship between a stronger country and a weaker country.
An example of Western dominance seen as imperialism in the Middle East is the case of Dr. Muhammad Mossadegh, who was prime minister of Iran.
In he was duly elected but was forcibly removed by British intelligence, and the U. This background information helps explain much of the negative rhetoric about the U. It was at that time several revolutionaries took 52 Americans hostage at the U.
A deep rift developed between the U.