How interest rates affect bond investments | Fidelity Singapore
The relation between interest rates and credit spreads has been a subject of The subject has some important portfolio and risk management. Interest rate risk is the risk of changes in a bond's price due to changes in (To learn about credit risk, read Corporate Bonds: An Introduction To Credit Risk.) are a function of the dynamics between short-term and long-term interest rates. Interest Rates section of our Inflation Tutorial to learn more about their relationship. The relationship between interest rates and credit spreads for the increased risk, causing their yields to rise and the prices to drop. So even.
Typically, bonds that have the longest maturity dates and the lowest coupons are the most sensitive to interest rate changes — and so have higher durations. Duration can be calculated for both individual bonds and a whole portfolio of them. Consequently, the manager might sell some of the longer-dated and low-coupon bonds, thereby shortening duration.
As well as selling physical bonds, portfolio managers can use derivatives to mitigate interest rate risk synthetically — a strategy that aims to make the portfolio more resilient if interest rates were to rise.
This flexibility is key to navigating markets and benefits investors. If you would like to learn more, keep exploring our other fixed income articles, videos and infographics below.
Explore our solutions This publication is for information and general circulation only. It does not have regard to the specific investment objectives, financial situation and particular needs of any specific person who may receive it.
Duration: Understanding the Relationship Between Bond Prices and Interest Rates - Fidelity
You should seek advice from a financial adviser. Past performance and any forecasts on the economy, stock or bond market, or economic trends are not necessarily indicative of the future performance. Views expressed are subject to change, and cannot be construed as advice or recommendations. References to specific securities if any are included for the purposes of illustration only. However, Treasury bonds as well as other types of fixed income investments are sensitive to interest rate risk, which refers to the possibility that a rise in interest rates will cause the value of the bonds to decline.
Bond prices and interest rates move in opposite directions, so when interest rates fall, the value of fixed income investments rises, and when interest rates go up, bond prices fall in value.Replace Interest Rate Risk With Credit Risk
If rates rise and you sell your bond prior to its maturity date the date on which your investment principal is scheduled to be returned to youyou could end up receiving less than what you paid for your bond. Similarly, if you own a bond fund or bond exchange-traded fund ETFits net asset value will decline if interest rates rise.
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The degree to which values will fluctuate depends on several factors, including the maturity date and coupon rate on the bond or the bonds held by the fund or ETF. Using a bond's duration to gauge interest rate risk While no one can predict the future direction of interest rates, examining the "duration" of each bond, bond fund, or bond ETF you own provides a good estimate of how sensitive your fixed income holdings are to a potential change in interest rates.
Investment professionals rely on duration because it rolls up several bond characteristics such as maturity date, coupon payments, etc. Duration is expressed in terms of years, but it is not the same thing as a bond's maturity date. That said, the maturity date of a bond is one of the key components in figuring duration, as is the bond's coupon rate.
In the case of a zero-coupon bond, the bond's remaining time to its maturity date is equal to its duration. When a coupon is added to the bond, however, the bond's duration number will always be less than the maturity date.
The larger the coupon, the shorter the duration number becomes.
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Generally, bonds with long maturities and low coupons have the longest durations. These bonds are more sensitive to a change in market interest rates and thus are more volatile in a changing rate environment. Conversely, bonds with shorter maturity dates or higher coupons will have shorter durations.
Bonds with shorter durations are less sensitive to changing rates and thus are less volatile in a changing rate environment. Why is this so? Because bonds with shorter maturities return investors' principal more quickly than long-term bonds do. Therefore, they carry less long-term risk because the principal is returned, and can be reinvested, earlier. This hypothetical example is an approximation that ignores the impact of convexity; we assume the duration for the 6-month bonds and year bonds in this example to be 0.
Duration measures the percentage change in price with respect to a change in yield. FMRCo Of course, duration works both ways. If interest rates were to fall, the value of a bond with a longer duration would rise more than a bond with a shorter duration.