The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching | ddttrh.info
The case study chosen here to analyse the relationship between language and discourse and the concepts/practice of ideology, hegemony, deep culture and. An important point to note is also the correlation between language and 43) view, “because human's thought or ideology is an important component of culture . On the Relationship between Language and Ideology Represented in the International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN This study aims at exploring the relationship between ideology and language in terms of.
I have often said that I am concerned in my study of language policy with the basic general notion of what makes people do things or perhaps what is causative in human behavior and relations? I question again and again how it is that polities make rules, regulations, policies, etc.
Claiming that vague notions of ideology are responsible for making people behave in a certain way is no different. Another problem that I have with the ideology discourse is that there seems to be no way to show that something is not an ideology.
In linguistics in general and in many other disciplineswe want to have a metric that allows us to falsify or offer a refutation of of the theoretical claim, so that we know what is, and what is not, an ideology.
The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching
Without this, any claim whatsoever seems to qualify, which leads to the reductio ad absurdem that everything is ideology. One even hears, repeated ad infinitum, at AAA meetings, that "It's all just ideology! This is what Chomsky calls a "strong" theory, i. I stated at the outset of this course that I wanted you to at least attempt to view language policy in the framework I have elaborated, or, failing that, prove me wrong.
Some of your papers challenge my approach, but do not give warranted evidence of why I am wrong. This does not satisfy the requirements of this course. These are mostly non-monograph studies of various sorts. Monograph-length studies can be found in the on-line catalogue, or in this list.
Certain language have scope for cross-cultural adaptations and communication, and may not actually be part of any culture. Additionally, many languages are used by different cultures that is, the same language can be used in several cultures.
- Problems with Language and `Ideology'
- International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926
Language is heavily influenced by culture - as cultures come up with new ideas, they develop language components to express those ideas. The reverse is also true: Finally, languages are not solely defined by their developing culture s - most modern languages are amalgamations of other prior and current languages.
That is, most languages borrow words and phrases "loan words" from other existing languages to describe new ideas and concept. In fact, in the modern very-connected world, once one language manufactures a new word to describe something, there is a very strong tendency for other languages to "steal" that word directly, rather than manufacture a unique one itself. Conversely, English is currently the world's largest "donor" language, with vast quantities of English words being imported directly into virtually all other languages.
The Turkish Republic was established in by M. Creating a contemporary and new cultural synthesis became one of the major targets of the larger project of development and Westernisation in the young Republic which were the main pillars of the Kemalist ideology, which was put forward by the historian Bernard Lewis in the following passage: The two dominant beliefs of his life were in the Turkish nation and in progress; the future of both lay in civilization, which for him meant the modern civilization of the West, and no other.
His nationalism was healthy and reasonable; there was no arrogant trampling on the rights or aspirations of other nations, no neurotic reflection of responsibility for the national past.
The Turks were a great people of great achievement, who had gone astray through the evil effects of certain elements and forces among them; they must be restored to the path of progress, to find their place in the community of civilized nations […]. Berk in Translation and Westernisation in Turkey writes the following about this initiative: The acculturation model was extended during the early Republican era due to a conscious and deliberate central government policy to follow Western models.
Attempts at creating the modern Turkish nation of the Turkish Republic established after the independence struggle against European powers inwere not based on refusing European cultural values, but on loosening ties with Islam and the Eastern world and claiming a place within European culture and civilisation. In this respect, the very foundations of the Republic were mainly translations from the West affecting in every respect socio-cultural life in Turkey.
Equipping this nation with all the concepts and institutions of Western humanism and enlightenment was one of the targets of Kemalism. The Turkish nation has perceived with great joy that the obstacles which constantly, for centuries, had kept Turkey from joining the civilized nations marching forward on the path of progress, have been removed.
Uncivilized people he said on another occasion, are doomed to remain under the feet of those who are civilized. And civilization meant the West, the modern world, of which Turkey must become a part in order to survive. The nation has finally decided to achieve, in essence and in form exactly, and completely, the life and means that contemporary civilization assures to all nations. It was an attempt at forming a national culture inspired from humanism and enlightenment which would pave the way for the development of a national literature.
Turkish scholar Saliha Paker makes an evaluation of the translation project of the Turkish Ministry of Education in Turkish Tradition part of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies in the following manner: This, it was felt, would bring about a renaissance and contribute to the development of the Turkish language and culture.
Republican Turkey which aspires to and is determined to become a distinguished member of Western culture and thinking is obliged to translate into its own language the works of the old and new thinking of the modern world and thus to strengthen its own existence with their perception and thought.
This obligation invites us to start a full-scale translation project. A list of works to be translated into Turkish has been attached to this report, which is in no way restricted only to the above names.
It is hoped that the translation of these works will be materialized by the Ministry of Education for the sake of speed and accuracy. May marks a turning point in our culture.
Language and Ideology
Great number of intellectuals such as educationists, men of letters, painters, writers, politicians etc. They searched for solutions and ways to create a national library, to circulate books in towns, villages, to start a translation project […].
The Congress turned into a cultural festivity. Our purpose is to create a cultural awareness for the Western sources which are necessary in order to create the spirit of humanism and to contribute to the Turkish Renaissance which started with the establishment of the Turkish Republic. The first phase of understanding the spirit of humanism is to identify oneself with the artistic creations which are the concrete expression of human existence […].
This is why we consider translation an effective and important activity on our way to civilization. Literature has an everlasting and penetrating influence on the masses in nations who can turn their intellect to all kinds of such works. The nation which has the largest library ranks first in the intellectual capacity of the civilized world.
Turkish readers feel great attachment to this translation project, when they think of all the gains of the Turkish language. The Translation Bureau functioned between the years and and the most fruitful period was between and A Translation Commission had already been established following the report of the Committee and the Commission had its first meeting in Ankara, on February 28, During this meeting, issues concerning the method of translations, preparation of foreign language dictionaries, editing of the translations and concerns about the style of the translations were discussed.
The first meeting was followed by four other meetings in Ankara in the same year. The Commission members were the following names led by Dr. During three successive meetings a list of works to be translated was prepared which mainly consisted of works belonging to Western humanistic culture and some representatives of Eastern literature.
The list comprises works which are especially related to the humanistic culture […] translation is very important for the development of knowledge and culture in our country and it will serve to bring forth the ideas and elements of the modern world, and also help to enrich our language. He proposed that the list should be revised and made more comprehensive and that universities should also take part in the translation project so that translation activities could be independent of Ministries and Ministers Burian a: The Translation Bureau started its activities ina year after the 1st Publication Congress.
Other translators were all competent and respected men of letters, writers, thinkers, poets, and scholars who were enthusiastic and devoted to the project. The activities of the Bureau and its methods were determined by the Bureau members who gathered at the beginning of each week to set a course of action and a method.
According to Orhan Burian, the methods and the activities could be summed up as: Since translation was regarded by the state as a tool for enlightenment and modernization, and since the aim of the Bureau was to enrich, improve and elevate Turkish culture and language and thus encourage Turkish men of letters to produce original works, the translations were in conformity with the expectations of the state and the spirit of a great number of people.
Hence, the objectives of the Bureau were expressed as such by some of its members: To enrich Turkish culture and to materialize cultural contact with other civilizations; To make great sources of Western and Eastern civilizations accessible to Turkish readers and to democratize culture throughout Anatolia by establishing libraries of translated works; To enrich and nourish the Turkish language with all the concepts of contemporary Western thought and sciences.
The activities of the Institute briefly revolved around three main issues: To carry out research on Turkish language; To find solutions to the daily problems of Turkish language; To enrich and nourish Turkish language in its all forms of use.
This reform was in line with the modernization policy of the state. Hence, translation was also important for the enrichment of the language and implementation of the language reform. Suat Yakup Baydur explains the content of the language reform and its goals as follows: It was necessary to adopt the Latin alphabet because of the difficulties in spelling and pronunciation of words borrowed from Arabic and Persian; Ottoman language was unintelligible for the young generation and it had to be abolished in schools; Under the influence of European culture and science, the terms and concepts, in Arabic and Persian were insufficient to meet the needs for development and advancement in culture, humanities, and sciences; In order to get closer to the Anatolian people and their speech and conversation, a new alphabet and systematized language had to be available soon.
In that respect, translators put forward their ideas about methods to be employed by them in their translations, taking into consideration the objectives of the Bureau and the language reform.
Language ideology - Wikipedia
As a result, the 17th century elaborate court French turned into ordinary and everyday Turkish. I keep searching for a softer form in Turkish while trying to figure out what the writer would say if he were a Turk […]. I prefer to give a conversational tone to the narrative mode. What we really expect to see in a translation is the proof that Turkish is capable of expressing things thought in other languages, without distorting or changing them. The conversational Turkish in the dialogues sound like that of local Turkish people.