NC State | WWW4 Service End of Life
The settlers arrived on the east coast of North America. The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the Indians of the East Coast Both groups found this relationship to be successful. Without the help of Massasoit and his tribe, the first European settlers in the northernmost colonies might not. relatively short period between when the Plymouth Colony came into existence and that the relations between the English settlers and Native Americans were far more groups of indigenous people long before the European arrival. In between were the Dutch and the tiny Swedish community. Sometimes friendly, sometimes hostile, the Eastern tribes were no longer strangers to the Europeans. Although Native Americans benefitted from access to new technology and Early colonial-Indian relations were an uneasy mix of cooperation and conflict.
Over time, their lives changed as they adapted to different environments. American Indians were creative.
[Indian] Relationships With The Europeans
They found ways to live in deserts, in forests, along the oceans, and on the grassy prairies. Native peoples were great hunters and productive farmers.
They built towns and traded over large distances with other tribes. These were the people the European explorers met when their ships landed in America. Europeans carried a hidden enemy to the Indians: Native peoples of America had no immunity to the diseases that European explorers and colonists brought with them. Diseases such as smallpoxinfluenzameaslesand even chicken pox proved deadly to American Indians.
Europeans were used to these diseases, but Indian people had no resistance to them. Sometimes the illnesses spread through direct contact with colonists. Other times, they were transmitted as Indians traded with one another.
The result of this contact with European germs was horrible. Sometimes whole villages perished in a short time.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
As early asEnglish explorer Thomas Harriot observed how European visits to the small villages of coastal North Carolina Indians killed the Natives. The disease was also so strange that they neither knew what it was nor how to cure it. The introduction of European diseases to American Indians was an accident that no one expected.
Neither the colonists nor the Indians had a good understanding of why this affected the Native people so badly. The great impact of disease on the Native population of America is an important part of the story of European exploration. Experts believe that as much as 90 percent of the American Indian population may have died from illnesses introduced to America by Europeans. This means that only one in ten Natives survived this hidden enemy. Their descendants are the 2. New trade goods represented another big change that European explorers and colonists brought to American Indians.
Soon after meeting their European visitors, Indians became very interested in things that the colonists could provide. In a short time, the Indians began using these new materials and products in their everyday lives. Native hunters were eager to trade prepared deer hides and other pelts for lengths of colored cloth. Metal tools such as axes, hoes, and knives became valuable new resources.
Soon American Indian men put aside their bows and arrows for European firearmspowder, and lead shot. Trade items like metal pots often were cut up and remade into new tools or weapons. The desire to get European goods changed ancient trading patterns. The tradition of simple hunting for food began to become less important than getting animal hides to trade. Soon American Indians depended on European items for daily needs. Colonial traders also brought rumand this drink caused many problems for some tribes.
New trade goods brought from across the Atlantic Ocean changed American Indian lives forever.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
A third big change connected to this new trade was slavery. Europeans needed workers to help build houses and clear fields.
They soon realized that they could offer trade goods like tools and weapons to certain American Indian tribes that would bring them other Indians captured in tribal wars. These captured Indians were bought and sold as slaves. On the one hand, there were the exemplary relations which prevailed during the first half century of Pennsylvania's existence. On the other were a long series of setbacks, skirmishes and wars, which almost invariably resulted in an Indian defeat and further loss of land.
The first of the important Indian uprisings occurred in Virginia inwhen some whites were killed, including a number of missionaries who had just recently come to Jamestown. The Pequot War followed inas local tribes tried to prevent settlement of the Connecticut River region.
In Phillip, the son of the chief who had made the original peace with the Pilgrims inattempted to unite the tribes of southern New England against further European encroachment of their lands. In the struggle, however, Phillip lost his life and many Indians were sold into servitude. Almost 5, kilometers to the west, the Pueblo Indians rose up against the Spanish missionaries five years later in the area around Taos, New Mexico.
For the next dozen years the Pueblo controlled their former land again, only to see the Spanish retake it.
Some 60 years later, another Indian revolt took place when the Pima Indians clashed with the Spanish in what is now Arizona. The steady influx of settlers into the backwoods regions of the Eastern colonies disrupted Indian life. As more and more game was killed off, tribes were faced with the difficult choice of going hungry, going to war, or moving and coming into conflict with other tribes to the west.
- Native American- European Contact in Colonial Times
- American Indians at European Contact
- This page is no longer available.
The Iroquoiswho inhabited the area below Lakes Ontario and Erie in northern New York and Pennsylvania, were more successful in resisting European advances.
The League was run by a council made up of 50 representatives from each of the five member tribes. The council dealt with matters common to all the tribes, but it had no say in how the free and equal tribes ran their day-to-day affairs.
No tribe was allowed to make war by itself. The council passed laws to deal with crimes such as murder.