Land Use Changes & Climate - The Environmental Literacy Council
Over 1, people were injured in the blast, mostly due to broken glass. with Earth to increase our emergency preparedness for it, and we're. Tropical storms becoming more severe due to warmer ocean water temperatures. The link between land use and the climate is complex. First, land cover--as. Weather describes the short-term state of the atmosphere. Globe What is our Seasonal changes are due to the Earth revolving around the sun. Rain What causes The water cycle begins with evaporation. Evaporation is when . Greenhouse Effect Global Warming may be a big problem, but can you make a difference?.
Increases in concentrations of these gases since are due to human activities in the industrial era. Concentration units are parts per million ppm or parts per billion ppbindicating the number of molecules of the greenhouse gas per million or billion molecules of air.
Weather - Wikipedia
National Climate Assessment The primary human activity affecting the amount and rate of climate change is greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The sources and recent trends of these gases are detailed below. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change.
Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use, release large amounts of CO2, causing concentrations in the atmosphere to rise.
The monthly average concentration at Mauna Loa now exceeds ppmv for the first time in human history. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has risen from pre-industrial levels of parts per million by volume ppmv to over ppmv in Since alone shown hereconcentrations have risen by more than 85 ppmv.
The yearly rise and fall in the chart reflects the growth and decay or northern hemisphere vegetation. NOAA If the amount of water flowing into a bathrub is greater than the amount of water leaving through the drain, the water level will rise. Today, human activities have turned up the flow from the CO2 "faucet," which is much larger than the "drain" can cope with, and the level of CO2 in the atmosphere like the level of water in a bathtub is rising.
Methane Methane is produced through both natural and human activities. For example, natural wetlands, agricultural activities, and fossil fuel extraction and transport all emit CH4.
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In recent decades, the rate of increase has slowed considerably. Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide is produced through natural and human activities, mainly through agricultural activities and natural biological processes. Fuel burning and some other processes also create N2O. Other greenhouse gases Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas and also the most important in terms of its contribution to the natural greenhouse effect, despite having a short atmospheric lifetime.
Some human activities can influence local water vapor levels. However, on a global scale, the concentration of water vapor is controlled by temperature, which influences overall rates of evaporation and precipitation.
Sea and Land Breezes
Chemical reactions create ozone from emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds from automobiles, power plants, and other industrial and commercial sources in the presence of sunlight. In addition to trapping heat, ground-level ozone is a pollutant that can cause respiratory health problems and damage crops and ecosystems.
Unlike water vapor and ozone, these F-gases have a long atmospheric lifetime, and some of these emissions will affect the climate for many decades or centuries. To learn more about actions that can reduce these emissions, see What You Can Do.
Other climate forcers Particles and aerosols in the atmosphere can also affect climate. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels and biomass contribute to emissions of these substances, although some aerosols also come from natural sources such as volcanoes and marine plankton.
Unlike GHGs, BC can directly absorb incoming and reflected sunlight in addition to absorbing infrared radiation. BC can also be deposited on snow and ice, darkening the surface and thereby increasing the snow's absorption of sunlight and accelerating melt. Sulfates, organic carbon, and other aerosols can cause cooling by reflecting sunlight.
Warming and cooling aerosols can interact with clouds, changing a number of cloud attributes such as their formation, dissipation, reflectivity, and precipitation rates. Clouds can contribute both to cooling, by reflecting sunlight, and warming, by trapping outgoing heat.
It has followed its natural year cycle of small ups and downs, but with no net increase bottom. Over the same period, global temperature has risen markedly top. Climate is influenced by natural changes that affect how much solar energy reaches Earth.
The intensity of the sunlight can cause either warming during periods of stronger solar intensity or cooling during periods of weaker solar intensity. Light-colored objects and surfaces, like snow and clouds, tend to reflect most sunlight, while darker objects and surfaces, like the ocean, forests, or soil, tend to absorb more sunlight.
The term albedo refers to the amount of solar radiation reflected from an object or surface, often expressed as a percentage. Reflectivity is also affected by aerosols. Aerosols are small particles or liquid droplets in the atmosphere that can absorb or reflect sunlight.
Unlike greenhouse gases, the climate effects of aerosols vary depending on what they are made of and where they are emitted.
Those aerosols that reflect sunlight, such as particles from volcanic eruptions or sulfur emissions from burning coal, have a cooling effect.
Those that absorb sunlight, such as black carbon a part of soothave a warming effect. Volcanoes have played a noticeable role in climate. Volcanic particles that reach the upper atmosphere can reflect enough sunlight back to space to cool the surface of the planet by a few tenths of a degree for several years.
Sea and Land Breezes | North Carolina Climate Office
Volcanic particles from a single eruption do not produce long-term change because they remain in the atmosphere for a much shorter time than GHGs. Processes such as deforestation, reforestation, desertification, and urbanization often contribute to changes in climate in the places they occur. The uneven heating causes temperature differences, which in turn cause air currents wind to develop, which then move heat from where there is more heat higher temperatures to where there is less heat lower temperatures.
The atmosphere thus becomes a giant "heat engine", continuously driven by the sun. High and low pressure areas, wind, clouds, and precipitation systems are all caused, either directly or indirectly, by this uneven heating and the resulting heat redistribution processes.
Generally speaking, there are two main main modes of this heat redistribution: Solar heating of the Earth's surface makes the atmosphere convectively unstablecausing vertical air currents to develop.
This is what causes puffy-looking clouds, showers, and thunderstorms to form in warm air masses. Because the Earth is a sphere, it receives more sunlight in the tropics, and less sunlight toward the North and South Poles. This causes horizontal temperature differences to develop, which in turn causes air pressure differences, leading to wind that transports heat from the tropics to the high latitudes.
Together, this uneven heating in both the horizontal and vertical directions in the atmosphere causes everything that we perceive as "weather". This primary mode of vertical heat transport is called "moist convection". The following photo from the Space Station shows a large thunderstormwhich represents moist convection transporting heat from the lower to the upper atmosphere: If there is very little surface water available for instance, in desertsthe convective overturning of the atmosphere is called "dry convection", and it does not produce clouds or precipitation.
The horizontal transport of heat by wind from low to high latitudes is strongly influenced by the Earth's rotation, which prevents the wind from flowing directly from high pressure to low pressure, and instead causes the wind to flow around high and low pressure centers.
The following example shows how the wind flows in the Northern Hemisphere