Which of the following statements is true about the news media? . Which US president promoted his policy agenda to the American people Which statement best describes the relationship between public opinion and government policy?. relationship between opinion and policy – when the public wants a lot of policy, they should get. a lot of policy. outcome of a single legislator, but the entire policymaking system. more data-intensive covariation or congruence appr oaches described below. s () Statehouse Democracy stands out as the best-. To what extent is the character of American public opinion best described as through private communications to officeholders, public writings and statements, and the vote. Individuals' preferences about politics and policy are rooted partly in make extensive use of public opinion polls to decide whether to run for office .
Preferences and beliefs are expressed indirectly, in response to choices that are offered. There are areas of commonality, or consensus, within American public opinion, including consensus on the legitimacy of the government, equality of opportunity, liberty, and democracy.
Still, there are many areas in which the public disagrees on political matters and people express their divergent opinions through private communications to officeholders, public writings and statements, and the vote. Public opinion exists on a variety of political topics, including the following examples: Origins of Public Opinion From where do Americans get their opinions about politics? What are the most common sources of political socialization and how do they shed light on the differences in opinion that occupy American politics?
What is the role of political ideology in organizing the political opinions Americans hold? Preferences are formed socially, as the product of various agents and processes known as political socialization. There are numerous agents of socialization. The family is an important agent of socialization; children often though by no means always absorb political preferences from their parents. Education, often a great equalizer and source of common values, also produces political differences, as disparities in educational attainment are strongly associated, for example, with differences in political participation.
Involuntary social groups e.
Patterns of differing opinions based on race, ethnicity, religious denomination, and gender emerge repeatedly in surveys. Changing political conditions associated with generational differences and when individuals are first recruited into political involvement can alter political attitudes and behavior.
Liberals tend to support political and social reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; federal social services; greater efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; environmental concerns; and consumer rights.
Conservatives tend to support the social and economic status quo; many support smaller government, oppose regulation of business, oppose abortion, support school prayer, and advocate the maintenance of American military power. Public Opinion and Political Knowledge What is the state of political attentiveness and political knowledge among American citizens? What are the consequences of the current state of political knowledge in America? Political Leaders, Private Groups, and the Media What are the primary forces that seek to manipulate, influence, and otherwise shape public opinion?
So, public opinion polling cannot measure the public. An educated individual's participation is more important than that of a drunk. The "mass", in which people independently make decisions about, for example, which brand of toothpaste to buy, is a form of collective behavior different from the public.
Public opinion plays an important role in the political sphere. Cutting across all aspects of relationship between government and public opinion are studies of voting behavior. These have registered the distribution of opinions on a wide variety of issues, have explored the impact of special interest groups on election outcomes and have contributed to our knowledge about the effects of government propaganda and policy.
Contemporary, quantitative approaches to the study of public opinion may be divided into 4 categories: The rapid spread of public opinion measurement around the world is reflection of the number of uses to which it can be put. Public opinion can be accurately obtained through survey sampling. Both private firms and governments use surveys to inform public policies and public relations. Formation[ edit ] Numerous theories and substantial evidence exists to explain the formation and dynamics of individuals' opinions.
Much of this research draws on psychological research on attitudes. In communications studies and political sciencemass media are often seen as influential forces on public opinion.
Chapter Public Opinion | American Government, Core 12e: W. W. Norton StudySpace
Additionally, political socialization and behavioral genetics sometimes explain public opinion. Mass media effects[ edit ] The formation of public opinion starts with agenda setting by major media outlets throughout the world. This agenda setting dictates what is newsworthy and how and when it will be reported.
The media agenda is set by a variety of different environmental and newswork factors that determines which stories will be newsworthy. Another key component in the formation of public opinion is framing. Framing is when a story or piece of news is portrayed in a particular way and is meant to sway the consumers attitude one way or the other. Most political issues are heavily framed in order to persuade voters to vote for a particular candidate.
For example, if Candidate X once voted on a bill that raised income taxes on the middle class, a framing headline would read "Candidate X Doesn't Care About the Middle Class". This puts Candidate X in a negative frame to the news reader. Social desirability is another key component to the formation of public opinion. Social desirability is the idea that people in general will form their opinions based on what they believe is the prevalent opinion of the social group they identify with.
Based on media agenda setting and media framing, most often a particular opinion gets repeated throughout various news mediums and social networking sites, until it creates a false vision where the perceived truth can actually be very far away from the actual truth.
Public opinion can be influenced by public relations and the political media. Additionally, mass media utilizes a wide variety of advertising techniques to get their message out and change the minds of people. Since the s, television has been the main medium for molding public opinion. Two-step flow of communication There have been a variety of academic studies investigating whether or not public opinion is influenced by " influentials ," or persons that have a significant effect on influencing opinion of the general public regarding any relevant issues.
Many early studies   have modeled the transfer of information from mass media sources to the general public as a "two-step" process. In this process, information from mass media and other far-reaching sources of information influences influentials, and influentials then influence the general public as opposed to the mass media directly influencing the public.
While the "two-step" process regarding public opinion influence has motivated further research on the role of influential persons, a more recent study by Watts and Dodds  suggests that while influentials play some role in influencing public opinion, "non-influential" persons that make up the general public are also just as likely if not more likely to influence opinion provided that the general public is composed of persons that are easily influenced.
This is referred to in their work as the "Influential Hypothesis. The model can be easily customized to represent a variety of ways that influencers interact with each other as well as the general public.
In their study, such a model diverges from the prior paradigm of the "two-step" process. The Watts and Dodds model introduces a model of influence emphasizing lateral channels of influence between the influencers and general public categories.Social Policy: Crash Course Government and Politics #49
This thus leads to a more complex flow of influence amongst the three parties involved in influencing public opinion i. Relationship with public policy[ edit ] The most pervasive issue dividing theories of the opinion-policy relation bears a striking resemblance to the problem of monism - pluralism in the history of philosophy. The controversy deals with the question of whether the structure of socio-political action should be viewed as a more or less centralized process of acts and decisions by a class of key leaders, representing integrated hierarchies of influence in society or whether it is more accurately envisaged as several sets of relatively autonomous opinion and influence groups, interacting with representative decision makers in an official structure of differentiated governmental authority.
The former assumption interprets individual, group and official action as part of a single system and reduces politics and governmental policies to a derivative of three basic analytical terms: Despite philosophical arguments regarding public opinion, social scientists those in sociologypolitical scienceeconomics and social psychology present compelling theories to describe how public opinion shapes public policy and find myriad effects of opinion on policy using various empirical research methods.
Moreover, researchers find that causal relationships likely run in both directions from opinion to policy and from policy to opinion. On the one hand, public opinion signals public preferences and potential voting behaviors to policymakers. On the other hand, social policy impacts public opinion. The goods and services the public gets via social policy builds normative expectations that shape public opinion.
There is much debate concerning what the relationship is, and the study of foreign policy's relationship with public opinion has evolved over time, with the Almond-Lippmann Consensus being one of the first attempt to define this relationship.