Celts - Wikipedia
I've lately been wondering this question because I've always thought that our race was divided into four major subcategories: Germanic, Celtic. I know culturally and linguistically, Celts and Germans are two different things, however genetically speaking, isn't there a lot of overlap. are the Germanic and Celtic peoples in any way related (as in more so than Germanic and Latin)? Basically: Are there any cultural or linguistic.
The Greek historian Ephorus of Cyme in Asia Minorwriting in the 4th century BCbelieved that the Celts came from the islands off the mouth of the Rhine and were "driven from their homes by the frequency of wars and the violent rising of the sea". Hallstatt culture Some scholars think that the Urnfield culture of western Middle Europe represents an origin for the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European family.
The Urnfield period saw a dramatic increase in population in the region, probably due to innovations in technology and agriculture. The spread of iron-working led to the development of the Hallstatt culture directly from the Urnfield c. Proto-Celtic, the latest common ancestor of all known Celtic languages, is considered by this school of thought to have been spoken at the time of the late Urnfield or early Hallstatt cultures, in the early 1st millennium BC. The spread of the Celtic languages to Iberia, Ireland and Britain would have occurred during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, the earliest chariot burials in Britain dating to c.
Other scholars see Celtic languages as covering Britain and Ireland, and parts of the Continent, long before any evidence of "Celtic" culture is found in archaeology. Over the centuries the language s developed into the separate CeltiberianGoidelic and Brittonic languages. Early Irish literature casts light on the flavour and tradition of the heroic warrior elites who dominated Celtic societies.
Celtic river-names are found in great numbers around the upper reaches of the Danube and Rhine, which led many Celtic scholars to place the ethnogenesis of the Celts in this area.
Diodorus Siculus and Strabo both suggest that the heartland of the people they called Celts was in southern France. The former says that the Gauls were to the north of the Celts, but that the Romans referred to both as Gauls in linguistic terms the Gauls were certainly Celts. Atlantic seaboard theory Myles Dillon and Nora Kershaw Chadwick accepted that "the Celtic settlement of the British Isles" might have to be dated to the Bell Beaker culture concluding that "There is no reason why so early a date for the coming of the Celts should be impossible".
Using a multidisciplinary approach, Alberto J.
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Lorrio and Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero reviewed and built on Almagro Gorbea's work to present a model for the origin of the Celtic archaeological groups in the Iberian Peninsula Celtiberian, VettonVacceanthe Castro culture of the northwest, Asturian - Cantabrian and Celtic of the southwest and proposing a rethinking of the meaning of "Celtic" from a European perspective. Stephen Oppenheimer  points out that the only written evidence that locates the Keltoi near the source of the Danube i.
However, Oppenheimer shows that Herodotus seemed to believe the Danube rose near the Pyreneeswhich would place the Ancient Celts in a region which is more in agreement with later classical writers and historians i. Linguistic evidence Further information: Celtiberian inscriptions, using their own Iberian script, appear later, after about BC. Besides epigraphical evidence, an important source of information on early Celtic is toponymy. This view was challenged by the 19th-century historian Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville [ citation needed ] who placed the land of origin of the Celts east of the Rhine.
Jubainville based his arguments on a phrase of Herodotus' that placed the Celts at the source of the Danube, and argued that Herodotus had meant to place the Celtic homeland in southern Germany.
At the beginning of the 20th century the belief that these "Culture Groups" could be thought of in racial or ethnic terms was strongly held by Gordon Childe whose theory was influenced by the writings of Gustaf Kossinna.
It is considered equally difficult to maintain that the origin of the Peninsular Celts can be linked to the preceding Urnfield culture. In addition to the literary evidence, Celtic, Roman and Germanic art and archaeology of the Iron Age will be consulted to provide to support or refute the claims of ancient writers where available. Throughout this study recourse will be made to Boudicca of the Iceni as the ancient sources provide a record of her performing most of the roles assessed.
The role of women in the most basic sense comes down to mothers and daughters and though it is difficult to determine which should come first, this essay will begin with Celtic and Germanic women as daughters. As daughters, Celtic and Germanic women can fit into almost all of the roles assessed by this study. It can be suggested that Celtic and Germanic women were in a position to assist their families in regards to politics and community. The most well-known of Celtic daughters, are those of Queen Boudicca and King Prasutagus of the British Iceni tribe, who had, since the invasion in AD43 become clients on behalf of the whole tribe to the emperor of Rome.
According to Tacitus, when Prasutagus died, in an effort to control the future of his family and tribe, he bequeathed half of his estate to his daughters and the remainder to the Roman emperor Nero. Another aspect of Celtic daughters aiding the position of their family is via political alliances gained through inter-tribal marriages, which places Celtic and Germanic women in the role of wives. To Caesar, this study owes its knowledge of Celtic inter-tribal marriage.
In the Gallic Wars Caesar describes a network of inter-tribal alliances existing between the Aedui and other tribes of Gaul through the marriages of female relatives.
Of famous British wives Tacitus provides source information for not only Boudicca but also the only surviving literary source for Cartimandua of the Brigantes.
Although both Celtic women were Queens and the wives of male Britons, there is a difference in the way which Tacitus reports on their status as wives. In regards to Boudicca, he introduces her to his narrative as the wife widow of Prasutagus and mother to his children, before any other role she may be responsible for is presented.
In the case of Cartimandua however, he depicts her as a wife because she has two husbands or consorts, although not at the same time. Support for the idea of the sexual freedom of British women can been seen in the discourse of Caesar on Britons. Caesar, Gallic Wars, 1. Bohn, MobileRefence ebook. He then goes on to qualify that the aforementioned wife-sharing usually takes place within a familiar unit, brother and fathers sharing wives.
The first is that British women, when they married a particular man, become the property of his family to be shared around at the leisure of the men. The second interpretation is that British women had more sexual freedom than Roman men are used to, thereby exercising their choice on the men closest to them on a daily basis and Caesar misunderstood what he was witnessing.
Of Germanic marriage gifts, Tacitus has something to say.
Germanic - Celtic relationship?
Suggesting that Germanic wives are less of a possession to their husbands he describes their dower rules of Germanic man bestowing on their wife to be certain marriage gifts believed to represent a partnership in life symbolised by work and weapons.
Caesar also describes a sum of money which the men and women of Gaul each bring to their marriages, which may symbolise partnership. Tacitus describes German men and women as being chaste until they made their marital match and excepting in the case of sovereignty where more 7 Caesar, Gallic Wars, 5: With his praise of Germanic chastity and faithfulness it can be suggested that Tacitus means to highlight in irony the opposite behaviour of Romans in relation to marriage.
- Germanic peoples
On the subject of the marital faith of Celtic wives, both Polybius and Plutarch have a story to relate in regards to Chiomara the wife Ortiagon of the Galations.
One role which may have been considered extraordinary to ancient writers was that of queen-ship. Students of Caesar experience a lack of information on the extraordinary actions of women as queens in Gaul because he appears to only mention women in relation to the actions of men.
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This may be because there were no extraordinary women in Gaul or because Caesar did not deem women a subject worth relating. While there may have been no queens worth mentioning in Gaul, Tacitus describes the exploits of two famous British Queens. Cartimandua, apparently a friend to Rome was the queen of a peaceful Brigantes in her own right.
Some archaeological support for royal women can be found in the burial chamber of a fifth century BC woman at Vix in France. He further suggests that the location near Mount Lasois, might suggest that she was an ancestor of the Aedui tribe encountered by Caesar.