3 Characteristics Of Platonic Love: A Connection Of A Different Kind
FARABI Greek philosophy to the Arabs), (definition of philosophy); (philosophy, religion and politics - relationship), , , and of Plato's Laws), (platonic tradition), (platonic elements - Lameer). While al-Farabi does not have a specific term for 'philosophy of religion' across the principle of similitude determining the relation of man, society, .. lend his notions of society and happiness a conspicuously Platonic flavor. Al-Farabi is said to have been killed by robbers while travelling. knowing The Philosophers' view of the relationship between Philosophy and revelation (not quite Here, too, they sought to interpret the Judaeo-Islamic and Platonic- Hellenic.
They have known each other for a while and nothing has ever happened between them. By "nothing," they mean that they've never kissed. The chemistry between them is palpable and they've been in situations where he could have made a move but he did not. And she recognizes this and respects him for it.
She knows that his intentions are ostensibly pure. She may or may not find him attractive, but it doesn't matter. He's a good guy and she likes talking to him.
And even if he's cute, she's not interested in him like that. Or so she thinks. On the flip side, he thinks that she is sexy. He'd love to go out for drinks, take her back to his place, inch closer to her on the couch. But she's made it clear that she's not looking for a relationship or she's already in a committed one. He's a respectful guy and completely understands.
He's been placed in the friend zone but he's not bitter about being there. In fact, he embraces the opportunity. He continues to message her because she's a cool chick.
And, honestly, when a hot girl messages you, it's impossible to ignore her. Especially when she's a nice person. Because of his sincerity, she's comfortable enough to share her secrets with him. Stuff that she's not willing to tell her significant other, perhaps because he is not quite as understanding.
Or maybe, it's bad stuff about her boyfriend. And you know what, it doesn't matter how independent a woman is--when her boyfriend messes up, she needs someone to talk to.
More specifically, she needs to talk to a friend, someone she can trust. Similarly, when his girlfriend is acting up, he will need an outlet. He'll need someone to be there for him. Through this, it becomes such as to be in the rank of the active intellect. And when a human being obtains this rank, his happiness is perfected.
- Al-Farabi's Philosophy of Society and Religion
Political Regime A, 2, 8: In his thought there is no room for corporeal resurrection. In function of the excellence an individual has achieved during her life, the felicity of her afterlife will be greater or lesser.
Perfect State V, 16, 2—3: The people of the excellent city have things in common which they all perform and comprehend, and other things which each class knows and does on its own. Each of these people reaches the state of felicity by precisely these two things …. The same is true of the actions by which felicity is attained: Perfect State V, 16, 2: It simultaneously embraces the idea of the individual felicity attained by the philosophers, the notion of a purification and, ultimately, deification of the human soul, and a theory of intellect which largely intertwines cosmic and epistemic dimensions.
For, whatever he has in mind regarding activities, from the above it is clear that the human telos is located at the level of rationality.
Happiness, consequently, consists in the as-perfect-as-possible assimilation of the human soul to the active intellect, whose unique activity is thinking. This being said, a number of questions remain open and must be addressed in what follows: His most detailed indications concerning these preconditions address a.
The things in common which all the people of the excellent city ought to know are: Perfect State V, 17, 1: This is rather astounding in view of the fact that, as he himself admits, only a minority of people are sufficiently gifted intellectually to do science, which is to say, to understand those things al-Farabi mentions in his list. Regarding the preconditions of happiness, however, it can be concluded that, as far as the common knowledge requirements a.
As for the remaining preconditions, al-Farabi is far less explicit.
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There are some indications regarding the common activities a. Thus, he intimates, in connection with the last quoted passage: When each of [the people of the excellent city] acts in this way [i. Accordingly, even the immaterial rational faculty of the soul can be positively affected, if those faculties of the soul which operate by virtue of corporeal organs such as sense perception and imagination are improved. This concerns, at the most basic level, the mixture of the temperaments, which is directly related to the nutritive faculty: On a slightly more complex level, this idea of balance or harmony as a means to purify the soul also concerns the realm of moral virtues.
Regarding, finally, those things which citizens are supposed to know and do in accordance with their respective classes referred to as b. He is convinced that, equipped with these specific talents, each human being possesses her natural place and duty within society.
Actualizing her individual potential to the best of her capacities, hence, contributes to the functioning and well-being of the community. This, in fact, does not immediately lead towards individual happiness, but is a necessary precondition as it contributes to covering the daily needs and, thus, warranting the basis for society to aspire for its own natural telos see section 1 above.
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The principle of similitude 3. Therefore, the primary goal of governing a society must consist in providing the means so that everyone can acquire theoretical knowledge,[ 16 ] learn about her natural duties, and put them into practice.
In order to explain his notion of the excellent society, al-Farabi falls back on two recurrent examples, natural organisms and the cosmos. At first glance, this comparison might appear inappropriate, linking voluntary behavior in the case of human beings and society with the strictly natural and causal processes characterizing the functioning of organisms and the cosmos as a whole.
While human beings, on his account, are in fact endowed with free will and, hence, can organize their own lives as well as their communities ad libitum,[ 17 ] there is, as seen above, a natural norm for humanity distinguishing the good life from the bad life and, in terms of eschatology, the attainment of happiness from failure to do so. In this sense, al-Farabi clearly subscribes to what nowadays would be called a natural law ethics. And it is precisely at this level that his two examples, organisms and the cosmos, come into play and lend his notions of society and happiness a conspicuously Platonic flavor.
Both the city and the household have an analogy with the body of the human being. In the same way, both the city and the household are composed of different parts of a definite number …, each performing on its own a certain action, so that from their actions they come together in mutual assistance to perfect the purpose of the city or the household.
Accordingly, the cosmos as such is not only determined by a certain order, it actually represents the best of all possible structures, as it is the effect of the over-perfect first cause. While everything else executes its function by nature, humanity, equipped with reason and free will, must choose to do so. And yet, the implications of the two paradigmatic examples, organisms and the cosmos, reach further, inasmuch as both examples represent complex entities with a diversified internal makeup.Can Men And Women Have Platonic Relationships?
To be sure, every element of the cosmos or an organism in general contributes to the well-being of the whole, nonetheless, each one has its peculiar activity. The heart, for instance, is in charge of pumping the blood through the blood vessels and thus keeping the body alive, whereas the kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood and regulating water fluid levels. Similarly, al-Farabi gives to understand that each human being has a particular task within the framework of society, in view of her specific skills cf.
The excellent city resembles the perfect and healthy body, all of whose limbs co-operate …. Now the limbs and organs of the body are different and their natural endowments and faculties are unequal in excellence, there being among them one ruling organ, namely the heart, and organs which are close in rank to that ruling organ ….
The same holds good in the case of the city.
Its parts are different by nature, and their natural dispositions are unequal in excellence: Perfect State V, 15, 4: Meanwhile, he also holds that human beings differ with regard to their natural endowments.
Accordingly, some are highly intelligent, while others are not.
Al-Farabi's Philosophy of Society and Religion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Some have the potential to become philosophers and recognize the makeup of the world, happiness, and the natural norm encapsulated in these ontological givens; others—actually the majority, as al-Farabi believes—do not possess these capacities. This raises the two interrelated questions of, first, how these individuals can nevertheless attain felicity, if at all; and, second, how society must be set up in order to achieve its own natural telos and offer each member an equal opportunity for attaining individual happiness.
While at first glance this seems to imply natural predestination, providing the happy few, on the one hand, with the means to attain eudaimonia, but dooming the unfortunate many, on the other, to misery, al-Farabi insists that every human being is equipped with the necessary requirements to attain ultimate felicity, even those whose natural disposition does not allow them to become philosophers.
For, according to him, people … whose innate character is sound share in an innate character that disposes them to receive the intelligibles in which they all share and by which they strive toward objects and actions common to all of them. Then, afterward, they diverge and differ, thereby coming to an innate character that is particular to each one of them and to each group. So one among them is disposed to receive certain other intelligibles that are not shared, but are particular to him ….
However, as likewise seen above, these prerequisites, and particularly those things which all human beings ought to know, set fairly high intellectual standards. Perfect State V, 17, 2: It is the duty of society or, more precisely, of the ruler of the excellent city to ensure that everyone is taught these things according to her capacities.
At this point, the second aspect mentioned above, i. Human beings, as noted before, have the same relationship to society as organs to the body. The ruling organ in the body is by nature the most perfect and most complete of the organs in itself and in its specific qualification …; beneath it, in turn, are other organs which rule over organs inferior to them …; they rule and are ruled.
In the same way, the ruler of the city is the most perfect part of the city in his specific qualification and has the best of everything which anybody else shares with him; beneath him are people who are ruled by him and rule others.
Perfect State V, 15, 5: Ruling the city, as was already stated before, consists in providing precisely this kind of guidance: Religion and the art of ruling 4. Religion is opinions and actions, determined and restricted with stipulations and prescribed for a community by their first ruler, who seeks to obtain through their practicing it a specific purpose with respect to them or by means of them.
If the first ruler is excellent and his rulership truly excellent, then in what he prescribes he seeks only to obtain, for himself and for everyone under his rulership, the ultimate happiness that is truly happiness; and that religion will be the excellent religion.
Book of Religion 1: Accordingly, human beings need to know certain things in one of the two mentioned ways and perform certain actions in order to become truly happy. More precisely, this ruler is depicted as the one who first established the opinions and actions to be held and performed by the community she rules.
Furthermore, in so doing she pursued a specific purpose. Religion, therefore, is not a goal in and of itself; it is an instrument, more specifically, it is an instrument of rulership. He bluntly denies religion the status of an autonomous sphere of knowledge and wisdom; he rejects its claim to exclusive truth; and he reduces it to a mere tool. According to him, the givens of reality—the things constituting reality, their behavior, and the underlying natural laws—are the effects of certain primary principles, such as intelligence, soul, and matter, which are ultimately all founded in a single, first cause cf.
Accordingly, there is one objective reality and, epistemologically, one objectively true account of it. To be sure, philosophy is therefore superior to religion, as is often underscored by scholarship and acknowledged by al-Farabi himself cf. Book of Religion 5: This superiority, however, concerns only the respective epistemic levels. While philosophy is based on demonstration and results in objective certitude, religion is based on dialectical and rhetorical means and results only in probable opinion and conviction.
From this angle, it is religion which turns out to be no less important than philosophy, due to the givens of anthropology: The relation of religion to philosophy, therefore, is like the relation of human beings to organisms, and of society to the cosmos: