The Human–Nature Relationship and Its Impact on Health: A Critical Review
Define and use correctly all of the key words printed in bold. (SAQs and ) Relationships between human activity and the environment. PDF | The scope of the Encyclopedia of Earth is the environment of the Earth broadly defined, with particular emphasis on the interaction. 1 Our discussion will center around the relationship between human actions and the (4) DEFINITION: Positive economics is a systematized body of knowledge.Human Environment Challenges
Markaryan approaches to culture studies as phenomena inherent for an active and creative human being. In Soviet science, most attention was paid to the biological aspects of adaptation, with an emphasis on the human capacity to fit the requirements of natural environment.
At the end of 20th century, adaptive reaction has become the subject of special attention. To identify the possible character of human beings and human society in response to natural environmental changes, the concept of social and ecological resilience was introduced A.
Thus, the idea of humans as nature modifiers and creators came to be. Roots of the idea of human domination over nature are traced as early as the Enlightenment times, when the human ability to solve rationally all his or her vital tasks was declared for the first time T. During the 20th century, the idea of humans as nature-creators was conceptualized in the context theories of cultural O. Sauer and anthropogenic in Soviet science landscape, and the notion of landscape as series of sequent occupancies D.
In frameworks of postmodern methodology, this idea is conceptualized in the idea of landscape as artifact, based on two ideas T.
One of them is that landscape should be interpreted as a mental image, which could not exist without human beings who elaborate it.
At the same time, humans consciously and purposefully form their geographical environment, and their decisions about living space ordering are deeply motivated by their vital needs. Consequent application of these postulates inevitably results in partial or total negation of the natural landscape existence. This idea has become the starting point for the theory of human ecodynamics, which concerns the analysis of changes made by humans in the landscape in a long-lasting perspective.
Thus, the possibility of hunters and gatherers substantially reshaping their landscape is practically excluded or regarded as a minimal and non-permanent one, displayed only in connection with so-called secondary landscape components. Further, while humanity, and indeed nature also, has not entirely escaped change, it cannot be assumed that all have been shaped by evolutionary mechanisms 42 Some have been shaped by what Radkau 75 terms as the power shift between humans and nature, which is evolving, as it has and will keep on doing.
As such, the human—nature relationship goes beyond the extent to which an individual believes or feels they are part of nature. It can also be understood as, and inclusive of, our adaptive synergy with nature as well as our longstanding actions and experiences that connect us to nature.
Over time, as research and scientific knowledge progresses, it is anticipated that this definition of the human—nature relationship will adapt, featuring the addition of other emerging research fields and avenues.
It is, however, beyond the scope of this paper to review the many ways these concepts have been previously explored 84 — Since then, this shift has seen a major growth in the last 30 years, primarily in areas of positive health and psychology 88 — Despite its broad perspective of human health, the definition has also encountered criticism in relation to its description and its overall reflectance of modern society.
Similarly, others have highlighted the need to distinguish health from happiness 84 or its inability to fully reflect modern transformations in knowledge and development e.
As such, there have been calls to reconceptualize this definition, to ensure further clarity and relevance for our adaptive societies Broadly, health has been measured through two theoretical approaches; subjective and objective First, physical health is defined as a healthy organism capable of maintaining physiological fitness through protective or adaptive responses during changing circumstances While it centers on health-related behaviors and fitness including lifestyle and dietary choicesphysiological fitness is considered one of the most important health markers thought to be an integral measure of most bodily functions involved in the performance of daily physical exercise These can be measured through various means, with examples including questionnaires, behavioral observations, motion sensors, and physiological markers e.
Second, mental health is often regarded as a broad concept to define, encapsulating both mental illness and well-being. It can be characterized as the positive state of well-being and the capacity of a person to cope with life stresses as well as contribute to community engagement activities 83 It has the ability to both determine as well as be determined by a host of multifaceted health and social factors being inextricably linked to overall health, inclusive of diet, exercise, and environmental conditions.
As a result, there are no single definitive indicators used to capture its overall measurement. This owes in part to the breadth of methods and tends to represent hedonic e.
Third, social health can be generalized as the ability to lead life with some degree of independence and participate in social activities Indicators of the concept revolve around social relationships, social cohesion, and participation in community activities.
Further, such mechanisms are closely linked to improving physical and mental well-being as well as forming constructs, which underline social capital.
Adaptive because they have feedback structures that promote survival in a constantly changing environment. Human social system In order to analyse Human Environmental Interactions it is important to be aware of specific characteristics of the human social system.
The type of society strongly influences peoples attitude towards nature, their behaviour and therefore their impact on ecosystems. Important characteristics of human social systems are population size, social organization, values, technology, wealth, education, knowledge and many more. The choice of possible actions is then limited by the available technology. People modify the environment for their purposes and obtain benefits Ecosystem Services from it.
These Ecosystem Services are essential for human well-being and include for example the provision of resources like water, timber, food, energy, information, land for farming and many more.