When we think of what a good parent-child relationship should have what are the first theory will also help us understand how adolescents are affected when .. Despite the limitations of my research, my research confirmed that the more. Abstract. In this chapter, we review theory and research on parent–child relationships in . In contrast to support, parental control refers to behavioral constraints. Given space limitations, we focus this article only on attachment to parents . creating the AAI to assess parent–child relationships, social psychologists inter-.
First, parents of children with a chronic illness face more child-rearing responsibilities than parents of healthy children e. Distributing parental energy across a greater number of responsibilities may leave less time or energy for individual parenting tasks the competing-demands hypothesis; Drotar, Higher distress could impair parental ability to provide good care to their child. Parental depression has been linked to decreased warmth and nurturance and a lower quality of the parent—child relationship e.
Fourth, illness-specific factors may also play a role. For example, long hospitalization of the child may impair the development of the mother—child relationship owing to spending less time together e.
In addition, some kinds of chronic illness impair language skills e. Empirical results are contradictory as to whether families with and without children with a chronic physical illness differ with regard to parenting and quality of the parent—child relationship. For example, some narrative reviews of the literature reported that mothers of children with disabilities provided fewer positive responses and more negative responses, and showed lower levels of positive affect and sensitivity to infant cues as well as higher levels of control Coffey, ; Rogers, However, other authors have suggested that parents of a child with chronic illness may be more caring and providing and may demonstrate greater acceptance than parents of healthy children to compensate the child for his or her suffering e.
Nonetheless, results are inconsistent as to whether parents of children with a chronic illness do e. Given the heterogeneity of results of individual studies, meta-analysis is an adequate tool for integrating the available findings. Research Questions The first aim of the meta-analysis was to analyze whether families with a child with chronic physical illness differ from other families with regard to levels of parental responsiveness, demandingness, and overprotection vs.
In addition, we asked whether the two groups of parents differ with regard to the prevalence of authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting. For the second study aim, we analyzed whether the size of differences varies by illness characteristics, sociodemographic variables, and study characteristics. Illness Characteristics Kind of Illness We expected to find the strongest between-group differences in studies on epilepsy and hearing impairment.
- The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory
Hearing impairment leads to impaired communication between children and hearing parents Meadow-Orlans et al. In fact, Carpentier, Mullins, Wolfe-Christensen, and Chaney observed that a longer duration of the illness was associated with lower parental overprotection.
Sociodemographic Variables Child Age We expected that effect sizes would be smaller in older samples. Older children and adolescents tend to take more responsibility for the management of their disease, thus reducing the need for parental control and protection. In fact, Carpentier et al. Child Gender We also tested whether effect sizes would vary by child gender.
Cappelli, McGrath, MacDonald, Katsanis, and Lascelles observed elevated levels of overprotection in mothers of girls with cystic fibrosis, whereas no such difference was found for mothers of boys.
We were interested whether this result could be generalized to parents of children with other chronic illnesses, other dimensions of parenting, and the parent—child relationship in general. Parental Gender We also wanted to test whether effect sizes would be stronger with regard to maternal than paternal parenting and regarding the mother—child relationship as compared with the father—child relationship.
Ethnicity The present study tested whether effect sizes would be lower in studies with a higher percentage of members from ethnic minorities. Collectivistic values are widespread in ethnic minorities of Western countries, and these values may help the family to cope with a chronic illness e. Country We were interested in whether smaller effect sizes would be found in families from developing and threshold countries because collectivistic values are more prevalent in developing and threshold countries than in developed Western countries Triandis, Study Characteristics Rater Based on work by Noll, McKellop, Vannatta, and Kalinyakthe present study tested whether larger effect sizes would be found in observational studies than in studies using parental self-reports.
Parents of a child with chronic illness may not want to be different from other parents, and avoid answers that may show such differences. Target of Comparison We analyzed whether effect sizes would be smaller in studies that compared with general test norms rather than a healthy control group because the norm population probably includes some children with chronic illnesses.
Year of Publication We tested whether between-group differences would be smaller in more recent studies. Progress has been made in the treatment of some chronic diseases and the development of services for young people with chronic illness e. This may reduce the effects of a chronic illness on parenting behaviors and on the parent—child relationship. Study Quality The meta-analyses explored whether the size of between-group differences varies by two characteristics of study quality, namely, whether community-based probability samples or clinical convenience samples were used and whether the patient groups and control group were matched according to sociodemographic variables.
No directed hypothesis was stated for these moderator variables. The studies had been published or presented before February, They compared the parenting dimensions or styles or the quality of the parent—child relationship between children and adolescents with chronic physical illness and their healthy peers or test norms, or they provided sufficient information for a comparison with established normative data.
Standardized between-group differences in the outcome variables were reported or could be computed. Documentation of physician diagnosis within each study was not a requirement because of the need to include broad-based survey studies for which medical documentation might not be available. To include studies from different regions around the world, we also did not limit the included studies to those written in English.
We identified 1, entries. Review of Attachment Theory There are different views on attachment theory. The first and most well known view on attachment theory is that of J. Bowlby, who is known as the father of attachment theory. He believed that attachment begins at infancy and continues throughout life and there are several innate behavioral control systems that are needed for survival and procreation. An infant will first establish a strong attachment with its primary caregiver, who will be the infant's base of exploration.
It is an infant's innate behavior to want to explore new things, but when a child reaches away to explore and becomes in danger or scared, the primary caregiver will be its secure protection base.
Bowlby established the foundation for Ainsworth's attachment theory. Like Bowlby, Ainsworth also believed in the control systems but went a step further with the Strange Situation, which splits attachment up into three types: The secure type is when an infant seeks protection or comfort from their mother and receives care consistently.
The mother is usually rated as loving and affectionate. The avoidant type is when the infant tends to pull away from their mother or ignore her. The mother is usually rated as rejecting of the child's attachment behavior. The resistant type is when the infant tends to stay close to their mother. The Strange Situation is has become standard practice in psychology today.
A newborn baby immediately needs someone to take care of them. This person may be a parent, a sibling, or a nanny, but whoever it is, there will be a bond formed between them. Bowlby and Ainsworth both believed that this primary caregiver is the one that will most shape the child's personality and character. The primary caregiver is usually the mother and strong bonds are formed within minutes of giving birth.
It is important for the new parents and baby to be alone together right after the birth to establish a strong bond. The mother automatically has some kind of bond to the child because she carried it for 9 months, but early contact is important in forming strong bonds between them. A study by Klaus and his associates, shows that children whose mothers are given an extra five hours of contact a day for the first three days of life have significantly higher IQ scores.
These children score higher on language and comprehension tests by age five, than children whose mothers are not given extra time. These mothers show more soothing behavior towards their infants, made more eye contact with the child and had more physical contact as quoted in Trowell, Another study by O'Connor and his associates involved low-income mothers.
For the first two days of life, the control mothers had only thirty minutes of contact with their infant every four hours for feeding, while the other mothers had an extra six hours per day with their infants. Follow-ups showed that the significantly more control children had been admitted to the hospital for things such as abuse and neglect as quoted in Trowell, The mother and infant have an automatic bond, but the father must establish a bond after the child is born.
It is very important for the father to be involved in the delivery of the child and to be available to the infant in case the mother cannot hold the child right away due to other circumstances. Studies have shown that fathers who have early contact with their child have a stronger attachment with them in the months following the birth.
When the mother-infant interactions are observed, the mother is seen as nurturing and affectionate towards the infant, whereas father-infant interactions deal more with affiliation and play Geiger, Fathers have a more physical relationship with the child while the mother's relationship is more verbal. It has been shown that the fathers play interactions are more exciting and pleasurable to children than play interactions with the mother Geiger, It has been said that parent-child bonds are the most important in forming the child's personality.
Babies are programmed at birth to be interested in the social world around them. It is assumed that they learn much about the world through their caregivers and therefore their caregivers must have much influence on their personality and their sense of others.
Adolescents Form Attachments With Peers As a child reaches adolescence, they tend to depart away from the attachment relationships with any parental type figure. During adolescence, a new way of approaching attachment is formed. This new form of attachment is predictive of attachment behavior in future behavior, such as with their own kids or in marital relationships.
It has to be remembered though, that the relationship between parents and child does not become less important during adolescence, the adolescent just becomes less dependent on the parents. Adolescents are trying to reach autonomy during these years, but they understand that their parents are still there to support them when needed.
This goes hand in hand with infants and the exploratory system. Adolescents are exploring the ideas of being independent, but when independency becomes too overwhelming, they can turn to their parents, the secure base, for help.
Adolescents who exhibit autonomy seeking behavior usually have a positive relationship with their parents, indicating that they feel comfortable exploring because they know their parents will be there for them Weiss, A way of seeking independence from the parents is to rely more on peers as attachment figures. This transfer of reliance from parents to peers is an important process in the adolescent's life because it is usually a struggle at first, but it encourages their adult attachment styles to develop fully Weiss, Eventually, adolescents will form long-term relationships with their peers that may be of the romantic kind, which may become full attachment relationships.
Attachment relationships that turn romantic are possible life long relationships.
These relationships are formed not only because of the need for attachment, but also for the need of species survival. Romantic relationships are pushed forward by the need to procreate and the want to have the prior parent-child relationship, but this time as the parent. Not everyone has such an easy time transforming their attachment behaviors from their parents to their peers.
For families with insecure adolescents, there may be many difficulties in balancing autonomy and attachment needs. These adolescents have little confidence that their attachment relationships will last when there are disagreements or problems, so they tend to avoid the problems altogether.
Secure adolescents will face the problem and try to resolve it immediately. Avoidance by insecure adolescents can cause future problems within attachment relationships and can lead to depression and other problems.
Family Assessment - Limitations And Cautions
Adolescent depression has also been related to maternal attachment insecurity. There is moodiness, tension, and emotional instability. At this point in time both the parents and child need to be sensitive to the fact that their relationship is changing, and this is impacting the attachment system dramatically. At this point, the adolescent needs their parents the most, even though the adolescent is trying to become independent from the parents.
In conclusion, friendship attachments are important during adolescence because they are sources of emotional security and support, contexts for growth in social competence, and prototypes for later relationships Seiffge-Krenke, Children's Attachment Has Important Consequences Parents have important effects on their child's attachment system.
Studies have been conducted with children to try and measure whether or not the child is secure in their relationship with their parents.
Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory
In a study by George and Solomon, children project themselves into a story. The child is given a storyline centered on the idea that their mother and father had to go away for the night and they were left with a baby sitter. They are given mommy and daddy dolls to use to show their feelings when the parents leave and to show their feelings when the parents return. Secure children express fears about their parents leaving them, but they are resolved when the parents return home.
Avoidant children do not allow their fears and anxieties to show. They act as if everything is okay and they feel secure.
Ambivalent-dependent children tell stories about what they do when their parents are away. Distressing and bad times are ignored while joyful, good times are exaggerated. These children seem to have difficulty expressing more than one emotional perspective at a time. Finally, disorganized-controlling children introduce fear into the story but cannot resolve it. Insecure attachment systems have been linked to psychiatric disorders, to which a child is especially susceptible after the loss of an attachment figure.
Children with insecure attachment patterns "develop the inability to form secure attachments and react in a hostile, rejecting manner with their environment" Pickover,