ACT for Youth - Adolescence - Youth Statistics: Family Structure and Relationships
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Register for a free account Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. Register Study of relationships between adult children and parents Published Published Wed 6 May Adapted Media Release The majority of parents and adult children experience some tension and aggravation with one another, a new study suggests. But parents generally are more bothered by the tensions - and the older the child, the greater the bother.
For the study, supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, Birditt and colleagues at Purdue and Pennsylvania State universities analyzed data on parents and adult children who were at least 22 years old.
The adult children lived within 50 miles of their parents.
African Americans made up one-third of the sample and the rest were European Americans. The researchers asked about tensions related to a variety of topics, including personality differences, past relationship problems, children's finances, housekeeping habits, lifestyles, and how often they contacted each other.
Parents and adult children in the same families had different perceptions of tension intensity, with parents generally reporting more intense tensions than children did particularly regarding issues having to do with the children's lifestyle or behavior finances, housekeeping. According to Birditt, tensions may be more upsetting to parents than to children because parents have more invested in the relationship. Parents are also concerned with launching their children into successful adulthood.
Study of relationships between adult children and parents
Both mothers and fathers reported more tension in their relationships with daughters than with sons. While in the early s babies typically arrived within a marriagetoday fully four-in-ten births occur to women who are single or living with a non-marital partner.
At the same time that family structures have transformed, so has the role of mothers in the workplace — and in the home. As more moms have entered the labor force, more have become breadwinners — in many cases, primary breadwinners — in their families.
As a result of these changes, there is no longer one dominant family form in the U. Parents today are raising their children against a backdrop of increasingly diverse and, for many, constantly evolving family forms. By contrast, inthe height of the post-World War II baby boom, there was one dominant family form.
Not only has the diversity in family living arrangements increased since the early s, but so has the fluidity of the family. Non-marital cohabitation and divorce, along with the prevalence of remarriage and non-marital recoupling in the U.
Parenting in America
The growing complexity and diversity of families The share of children living in a two-parent household is at the lowest point in more than half a century: And even children living with two parents are more likely to be experiencing a variety of family arrangements due to increases in divorce, remarriage and cohabitation.
These changes have been driven in part by the fact that Americans today are exiting marriage at higher rates than in the past. This share has remained relatively stable for decades. In the remainder of two-parent families, the parents are cohabiting but are not married. In some cases, this will happen because a never-married mother enters into a cohabiting relationship; in other cases, a mother may enter into a cohabiting relationship after a marital breakup.
The decline in children living in two-parent families has been offset by an almost threefold increase in those living with just one parent—typically the mother. Furthermore, at least half of Asian and white children are living with two parents both in their first marriage.
The shares of Hispanic and black children living with two parents in their first marriage are much lower. Among Hispanic children, two-thirds live with two parents.
The living arrangements of black children stand in stark contrast to the other major racial and ethnic groups. Children with at least one college-educated parent are far more likely to be living in a two-parent household, and to be living with two parents in a first marriage, than are kids whose parents are less educated.
This share has remained stable since the early s, when reliable data first became available. Hispanic, black and white children are equally likely to live in a blended family. This low share is consistent with the finding that Asian children are more likely than others to be living with two married parents, both of whom are in their first marriage. The shrinking American family Fertility in the U. The share of mothers with three children has remained virtually unchanged at about a quarter.
Family size varies markedly across races and ethnicities. Asian moms have the lowest fertility, and Hispanic mothers have the highest. Similarly, a gap in fertility exists among women with different levels of educational attainment, despite recent increases in the fertility of highly educated women. The rise of births to unmarried women and multi-partner fertility Not only are women having fewer children today, but they are having them under different circumstances than in the past.
While at one time virtually all births occurred within marriage, these two life events are now far less intertwined. The majority of these births now occur to women who are living with a romantic partner, according to analyses of the National Survey of Family Growth. In fact, over the past 20 years, virtually all of the growth in births outside of marriage has been driven by increases in births to cohabiting women. Past analysis indicates that about one-in-five children born within a marriage will experience the breakup of that marriage by age 9.
In comparison, fully half of children born within a cohabiting union will experience the breakup of their parents by the same age. At the same time, children born into cohabiting unions are more likely than those born to single moms to someday live with two married parents. The share of births occurring outside of marriage varies markedly across racial and ethnic groups.
Racial differences in educational attainment explain some, but not all, of the differences in non-marital birth rates. New mothers who are college-educated are far more likely than less educated moms to be married.
The increase in divorces, separations, remarriages and serial cohabitations has likely contributed to an increase in multi-partner fertility.