Refworld | General Comment No Article Freedoms of opinion and expression
chirigakuteki kenkyii (Tokyo: Yoshikawa ko bunkan, ), pp. ); Lionel Giles, Six Centuries of Tun-huang (London: China Society, Nomads and Its Relationship to China," Journal of Asian Studies 53, no. an army of 10, military colonists had to be supported by 9, hu of grain and hu of salt every day. Twenty children will not play together for twenty years. (All relationships end sometime.) Ogun pa ard, odb-6 gbe iyekan lo, djobi sonii lona Ikbrbdu, a b tun reni bd rin mo, dfi eni ti htanni. Death took one's kin; the Olowo nje Arogan; Iwbfa nje Agunmdte; ebe ti won bd ko ehin ni won dfi tu u kd. The creditor is named. Unfortunately, I'm not that experienced with Linux systems. according to the website for the ddttrh.info installer, it is compatible with the following.
Introduction In humans and other mammals, the gut microbiome is essential for physiological homeostasis, and, under normal conditions, protects against pathogens and enhances food digestion and nutrient absorption.
Gut microbiota are transmitted maternally, but host genetics and environmental factors also modify and shape microbiota composition.
Alterations in the gut microbiome can also participate in disease, and have been associated with host metabolic abnormalities including inflammatory bowel disease [ 1 ], obesity, insulin resistance[ 2 ], diabetes[ 34 ] and cardiovascular disease[ 5 ]. During the past decade, signaling pathways have been identified to show that gut microbiota negatively impact host physiology, particularly regarding disease processes involving insulin resistance or chronic inflammation.
Host innate immunity is directly involved in the localization and structuring of host gut microbiota[ 6 ]. Toll-like receptor 5 TLR5 is an innate immunity receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin and is highly expressed on the intestinal mucosa. A previous study reported that TLR5 deficient mice TLR5KO1 had alterations in gut microbiota composition that resulted in metabolic syndrome including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and increased adiposity[ 7 ].
Moreover, similar metabolic changes occurred upon transfer of microbiota from TLR5KO1 to wild type mice. Contrary to our expectations, the metabolic profile of littermate TLR5KO2 mice and wild type control mice were the same despite multiple dietary challenges.
Since environmental factors and host genetics both participate in the modulation of gut microbiota, we analyzed the gut microbial composition of TLR5KO2 mice and compared these data to those previously reported in the TLR5KO1 mice[ 7 ].
Because both lines had TLR5 deficiency but were raised in different environments, the data distinguish the interactions between gut microbiota and host innate immunity from the interactions between gut microbiota and environment. Furthermore, these results provide new insights into the role of certain microbes in the development of obesity and insulin resistance in the host.
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Richard Flavell, Yale University, and generated as previously described[ 8 ]. To reduce the possibility that gut microbial composition could be cross-contaminated between wild type and knockout mice, the metabolic studies were repeated on mice that were segregated and caged by different genotypes since the time of weaning and on mice that were caged without segregating by genotypes.
Experimental design In the previous study[ 7 ], body weight under chow diet fat 4. To avoid the confounding effects of co-housing on the diversity of cecal bacteria, mice from multiple litters that were housed separately were selected for gut microbiome analysis.
In the current study, body weight under chow diet was recorded to 20 weeks of age, for high fat feeding, mice were given a high-fat diet fat Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging QMR was applied for body composition measurement at 20 weeks of age. To avoid the effects of co-housing on gut microbiome, multiple litters that were separately caged since weaning were selected for gut microbiome analysis. PCR products were confirmed by agarose gel.
Tests were done at indicated times in the life cycle, and before and after high fat diet feeding. To determine insulin tolerance as an assessment of insulin sensitivity, mice were fasted for 6 h in the morning of the test day and then administered an intraperitoneal injection of insulin solution 1—1.
Glucose levels were similarly monitored as described above in the glucose tolerance testing. Sequencing and analysis of gut microbiome Littermate mice were separately housed based on genotypes.
Paragraph 3 may never be invoked as a justification for the muzzling of any advocacy of multi-party democracy, democratic tenets and human rights. Restrictions must be provided by law. Law may include laws of parliamentary privilege  and laws of contempt of court. For purposes of paragraph 3, a norm, to be characterised as a "law", must be formulated with sufficient precision to enable an individual to regulate his or her conduct accordingly  and it must be made accessible to the public.
A law may not confer unfettered discretion for the restriction of freedom of expression on those charged with its execution. Laws restricting the rights enumerated in article 19, paragraph 2, including the laws referred to in paragraph 24, must not only comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3 of the Covenant but must also themselves be compatible with the provisions, aims and objectives of the Covenant.
Laws must not provide for penalties that are incompatible with the Covenant, such as corporal punishment. It is for the State party to demonstrate the legal basis for any restrictions imposed on freedom of expression. The first of the legitimate grounds for restriction listed in paragraph 3 is that of respect for the rights or reputations of others.
The term "rights" includes human rights as recognised in the Covenant and more generally in international human rights law. For example, it may be legitimate to restrict freedom of expression in order to protect the right to vote under article 25, as well as rights under article 17 See para.
The second legitimate ground is that of protection of national security or of public order ordre publicor of public health or morals. Extreme care must be taken by States parties to ensure that treason laws  and similar provisions relating to national security, whether described as official secrets or sedition laws or otherwise, are crafted and applied in a manner that conforms to the strict requirements of paragraph 3. It is not compatible with paragraph 3, for instance, to invoke such laws to suppress or withhold from the public information of legitimate public interest that does not harm national security or to prosecute journalists, researchers, environmental activists, human rights defenders, or others, for having disseminated such information.
On the basis of maintenance of public order ordre public it may, for instance, be permissible in certain circumstances to regulate speech-making in a particular public place. In order to comply with paragraph 3, such proceedings and the penalty imposed must be shown to be warranted in the exercise of a courts power to maintain orderly proceedings.
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The Committee observed in general comment No. Any such limitations must be understood in the light of universality of human rights and the principle of non-discrimination. Restrictions must be "necessary" for a legitimate purpose. Thus, for instance, a prohibition on commercial advertising in one language, with a view to protecting the language of a particular community, violates the test of necessity if the protection could be achieved in other ways that do not restrict freedom of expression.
Restrictions must not be overbroad.
The principle of proportionality has to be respected not only in the law that frames the For instance, the value placed by the Covenant upon uninhibited expression is particularly high in the circumstances of public debate in a democratic society concerning figures in the public and political domain. When a State party invokes a legitimate ground for restriction of freedom of expression, it must demonstrate in specific and individualised fashion the precise nature of the threat, and the necessity and proportionality of the specific action taken, in particular by establishing a direct and immediate connection between the expression and the threat.
The Committee reserves to itself an assessment of whether, in a given situation, there may have been circumstances which made a restriction of freedom of expression necessary. Among restrictions on political discourse that have given the Committee cause for concern are the prohibition of door-to-door canvassing,  restrictions on the number and type of written materials that may be distributed during election campaigns,  blocking access during election periods to sources, including local and international media, of political commentary,  and limiting access of opposition parties and politicians to media outlets.
For instance, it may be legitimate for a State party to restrict political polling imminently preceding an election in order to maintain the integrity of the electoral process. As noted earlier in paragraphs 13 and 20, concerning the content of political discourse, the Committee has observed that in circumstances of public debate concerning public figures in the political domain and public institutions, the value placed by the Covenant upon uninhibited expression is particularly high.
States parties should not prohibit criticism of institutions, such as the army or the administration. States parties should ensure that legislative and administrative frameworks for the regulation of the mass media are consistent with the provisions of paragraph 3. It is incompatible with article 19 to refuse to permit the publication of newspapers and other print media other than in the specific circumstances of the application of paragraph 3. Such circumstances may never include a ban on a particular publication unless specific content, that is not severable, can be legitimately prohibited under paragraph 3.
States parties must avoid imposing onerous licensing conditions and fees on the broadcast media, including on community and commercial stations. It is recommended that States parties that have not already done so should establish an independent and public broadcasting licensing authority, with the power to examine broadcasting applications and to grant licenses.
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The Committee reiterates its observation in general comment No. The State should not have monopoly control over the media and should promote plurality of the media.
Care must be taken to ensure that systems of government subsidy to media outlets and the placing of government advertisements  are not employed to the effect of impeding freedom of expression. The penalisation of a media outlet, publishers or journalist solely for being critical of the government or the political social system espoused by the government  can never be considered to be a necessary restriction of freedom of expression.
Any restrictions on the operation of websites, blogs or any other internet-based, electronic or other such information dissemination system, including systems to support such communication, such as internet service providers or search engines, are only permissible to extent that they are Permissible restrictions generally should be content-specific; generic bans on the operation of certain sites and systems are not compatible with paragraph 3. It is also inconsistent with paragraph 3 to prohibit a site or an information dissemination system from publishing material solely on the basis that it may be critical of the government or the political social system espoused by the government.
Journalism is a function shared by a wide range of actors, including professional full time reporters and analysts, as well as bloggers and others who engage in forms of self-publication in print, on the internet or elsewhere, and general State systems of registration or licensing of Limited accreditation schemes are permissible only where necessary to provide journalists with privileged access to certain places and, or events.
Such schemes should be applied in a manner that is non-discriminatory and compatible with article 19 and other provisions of the Covenant, based on objective criteria and taking into account that journalism is a function shared by a wide range of actors. It is normally incompatible with paragraph 3 to restrict the freedom of journalists and others who seek to exercise their freedom of expression such as persons who wish to travel to human rights-related meetings  to travel outside the State party, to restrict the entry into the State party of foreign journalists to those from specified countries  or to restrict freedom of movement of journalists and human rights investigators within the State party including to conflict-affected locations, the sites of natural disasters and locations where there are allegations of human rights abuses.
States parties should recognise and respect that element of the right of freedom of expression that embraces the limited journalistic privilege not to disclose information sources. States parties should ensure that counter-terrorism measures are compatible with paragraph 3.
Such offences as "encouragement of terrorism"  and "extremist activity"  as well as offences of "praising", "glorifying", or "justifying" terrorism, should be clearly defined to ensure that they do not lead to an unnecessary or disproportionate interference with freedom of expression.
Excessive restrictions on access to information must also be avoided. The media plays a crucial role in informing the public about acts of terrorism and its capacity to operate should not be unduly restricted.
In this regard, journalists should not be penalised for carrying out their legitimate activities. Defamation laws must be crafted with care to ensure that they comply with paragraph 3, and that they do not serve, in practice, to stifle freedom of expression. At least with regard to comments about public figures, consideration should be given to avoiding penalising or otherwise rendering unlawful untrue statements that have been published in error but without malice.
Care should be taken by States parties to avoid excessively punitive measures and penalties. Where relevant, States parties should place reasonable limits on the requirement for a defendant to reimburse the expenses of the successful party.
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It is impermissible for a State party to indict a person for criminal defamation but then not to proceed to trial expeditiously - such a practice has a chilling effect that may unduly restrict the exercise of freedom of expression of the person concerned and others. Prohibitions of displays of lack of respect for a religion or other belief system, including blasphemy laws, are incompatible with the Covenant, except in the specific circumstances envisaged in article 20, paragraph 2, of the Covenant.
Such prohibitions must also comply with the strict requirements of article 19, paragraph 3, as well as such articles as 2, 5, 17, 18 and Thus, for instance, it would be impermissible for any such laws to discriminate in favour of or against one or certain religions or belief systems, or their adherents over another, or religious believers over non-believers.
Nor would it be permissible for such prohibitions to be used to prevent or punish criticism of religious leaders or commentary on religious doctrine and tenets of faith. Laws that penalise the expression of opinions about historical facts  are incompatible with the obligations that the Covenant imposes on States parties in relation to the respect for freedom of opinion and expression.
The Covenant does not permit general prohibition of expressions of an erroneous opinion or an incorrect interpretation of past events. Restrictions on the right of freedom of opinion should never be imposed and, with regard to freedom of expression they should not go beyond what is permitted in paragraph 3 or required under article The relationship of articles 19 and 20 Articles 19 and 20 are compatible with and complement each other.
The acts that are addressed in article 20 are all subject to restriction pursuant to article 19, paragraph 3. As such, a limitation that is justified on the basis of article 20 must also comply with article 19, paragraph 3. What distinguishes the acts addressed in article 20 from other acts that may be subject to restriction under article 19, paragraph 3, is that for the acts addressed in article 20, the Covenant indicates the specific response required from the State: It is only to this extent that article 20 may be considered as lex specialis with regard to article It is only with regard to the specific forms of expression indicated in article 20 that States parties are obliged to have legal prohibitions.Abraham Hicks~ Compatibility in romantic relationships.
In every other case, in which the State restricts freedom of expression, it is necessary to justify the prohibitions and their provisions in strict conformity with article Republic of Korea, No.